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Oranjestad, Aruba

Xavier University School of Medicine is a private medical school located in Oranjestad, Aruba, in the Caribbean. Wikipedia.


Gupta S.,Pennsylvania State University | Kanamalla U.,Temple University | Gupta V.,Xavier University School of Medicine
Journal of Child Neurology | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children with developmental delay without regression of unknown etiology are more likely to have intracranial incidental findings than are children with autistic spectrum disorder or children with normal development. Of 771 patients with magnetic resonance images, 363 (47.1%) patients had developmental delay, 55 (7.1%) had autistic spectrum disorders, and 353 (45.8%) were developmentally normal. Developmentally delayed children were more likely than those with normal development (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.5; P <.001) or those with autistic spectrum disorder (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1; P =.019) to have an intracranial incidental finding. We report a higher prevalence of intracranial incidental findings in children with developmental delay as compared with those children with normal development. Future study should confirm whether the result of this study is merely incidental or truly related to a subgroup of children with developmental disability. © 2010 The Author(s). Source


Malee K.,Childrens Memorial Hospital | Williams P.,Center for Biostatistics in Research | Montepiedra G.,Center for Biostatistics in Research | McCabe M.,Kennedy Krieger Institute | And 5 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2011

The impact of behavioral functioning on medication adherence in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection is not well-explored, but has important implications for intervention. This report addresses the relationship between behavioral functioning and child self-report or caregiver report of medication adherence among children and adolescents enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219C (conducted 2000-2007). A total of 1134 participants, aged 3-17 years, received a behavioral evaluation and adherence assessment. Complete adherence was defined as taking 100% of prescribed antiretroviral medications during three days preceding the study visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between adherence and behavioral functioning, adjusting for potential confounders, including demographic, psychosocial, and health factors. Children demonstrated higher than expected rates of behavioral impairment (≈7% expected with T > 65) in the areas of conduct problems (14%, z = 7.0, p < 0.001), learning problems (22%, z = 12.2, p < 0.001), somatic complaints (22%, z = 12.6, p < 0.001), impulsivity-hyperactivity (20%, z = 11.1, p < 0.001), and hyperactivity (19%, z = 10.6, p < 0.001). Children with behavioral impairment in one or more areas had significantly increased odds of nonadherence [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.49, p = 0.04]. The odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for those with conduct problems and general hyperactivity (aOR = 2.03, p = 0.005 and aOR = 1.68, p = 0.02, respectively). Psychosocial and health factors, such as recent stressful life events and higher HIV RNA levels, were also associated with nonadherence. Knowledge of behavioral, health, and social influences affecting the child and family should guide the development of appropriate, evidence-based interventions for medication adherence. Copyright © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Rathore D.S.,Rajasthan Pharmacy College | Adhikari K.,Pokhara University | Shankar P.R.,KIST Medical College | Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine | And 2 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2014

Background: Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results: Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions: Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to, drug dispensing, counseling, dressing of wounds, and administering injections. However, the lack of qualified staff and adequate infrastructure may be compromising the quality of the services offered. Therefore, the health authorities should take the necessary measures to upgrade the qualifications of the personnel and to improve the infrastructure for the sake of good pharmacy practice and the safer use of injections. © 2014Gyawali et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Buchanan A.L.,Center for Biostatistics in Research | Montepiedra G.,Center for Biostatistics in Research | Sirois P.A.,Tulane University | Kammerer B.,Childrens Hospital Boston | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among children/ youth with HIV often is associated with disease progression. This study examined the agreement between child and caregiver perceptions of barriers to adherence and factors associated with these barriers. METHODS: Children/youth with perinatally acquired HIV and their parents/caregivers (n = 120 dyads) completed a questionnaire about 19 potential barriers to adherence to the child's antiretroviral therapy regimen. Agreement between the 2 reports was measured via the kappa statistic. Factors associated with the barriers were assessed by using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 120 children, 55% were African American, 54% were boys, and the average age was 12.8 years. The most frequently reported barrier by either the caregiver or youth was "forgot." There were varying degrees of agreement between child and caregiver on the following barriers: "forgot," "taste," "child was away from home,""child refused," and "child felt good." Children who knew their HIV status were more likely to report logistical barriers, such as scheduling issues. Children with a biological parent as their caregiver were more likely to report regimen or fear of disclosure as a barrier. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of agreement was observed for more than half of the studied barriers, indicating discrepancies between children's and caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence medication-taking. The findings suggest a need for interventions that involve both child and caregiver in the tasks of remembering when to administer the child's medications, sustaining adherence, and appropriately transitioning medication responsibility to the youth. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source


Rathore D.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy | Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine | Kc V.K.,PN Multiple Campus
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2014

Background: The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods. An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results: In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than half of them opined that such plans are limited to tertiary care hospitals located in the capital. Conclusions: The result of this study revealed a divergence of views among policymakers, even among those in the same ministry. Though there has been some effort from the government to increase the safety of injection practices, greater efforts are required, especially with regard to standardization of policies and procedures related to injection practice. © 2014 Gyawali et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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