Rathore D.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy Jabli Kyar |
Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
Jha N.,KIST Medical College
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015
Background: Previous studies have shown that unsafe injection practice is a major public health problem in Nepal but did not quantify the problem. The present community-based study was planned to: 1) quantify injection usage, 2) identify injection providers, 3) explore differences, if any, in injection usage and injection providers, and 4) study and compare people's knowledge and perception about injections between the urban and rural areas of Kaski district. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional mixed-methods study was conducted from July to November 2012, using a questionnaire based survey and focus group discussions (FGDs). A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization was modified and administered to household heads and injection receivers in selected households and the FGDs were conducted using a topic guide. The district was divided into urban and rural areas and 300 households from each area were selected. Twenty FGDs were held. Results: In 218 households (36.33%) [99 in urban and 119 in rural] one or more members received at least one injection. During the three month recall period, 258 subjects (10.44%) reported receiving injection(s) with a median of two injections. The average number of injections per person per year was calculated to be 2.37. Health care workers (34.8%), staff of medical dispensaries (37.7%), physicians (25.2%), and traditional healers (2.3%) were consulted by the respondents for their basic health care needs and for injections. Compared to urban respondents, more rural respondents preferred injections for fever (p∈<∈0.001). People preferred injections due to injections being perceived by them as being powerful, fast-acting, and longer lasting than oral pills. More than 82% of respondents were aware of, and named, at least one disease transmitted by using unsterile syringes during injection administration or when syringes are shared between people. Conclusions: Less preference for injections and high awareness about the association between injections and injection-borne infections among the general population is encouraging for safe injection practice. However, respondents were not aware of the importance of having qualified injection providers for safe injections and were receiving injections from unqualified personnel. © 2015 Gyawali et al.; licensee BioMed Central.
Rathore D.S.,Lr Institute Of Pharmacy |
Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
Kc V.K.,PN Multiple Campus
BMC International Health and Human Rights | Year: 2014
Background: The unnecessary and unsafe use of injections is common in developing countries like Nepal. Policymakers have an important role in promoting rational and safe injection use. Hence, the present study was carried out to explore the perception of health policymakers regarding safe injection practice in Nepal. Methods. An exploratory qualitative study design was used in this study. Key policymakers from both the central and regional level were selected using purposive sampling. A semi-structured questionnaire advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO) was used after modifying the context. Interviews were conducted to clarify doubts and obtain additional information. The data was analyzed manually using deductive content analysis technique. Results: In total, eleven policymakers participated. All unanimously agreed that injection safety is a problem and seven participants reported that injections are overused. They shared the opinion that injections are administered by various providers, including formal and informal health providers, and also quacks. Almost half the respondents reported that the National Drug Policy discourages injection overuse, while others reported that the policy contains no provisions regarding injection overuse. Most policymakers stated that only single-use disposable injection equipment is used to provide injection, while others thought that sterilizable glass syringe is also used. More than half of the participants believed that the quality of injection equipment available in the Nepalese market is not regulated by any government institution. Almost two-third of the policymakers stated that syringes and needles are not reused, while the rest thought syringes might be reused without sterilization in some parts of the country. Almost half of the respondents stated that illegal commercialization of used syringes exists in Nepal. Almost all respondents thought that health care institutions have a waste management plan, while more than half of them opined that such plans are limited to tertiary care hospitals located in the capital. Conclusions: The result of this study revealed a divergence of views among policymakers, even among those in the same ministry. Though there has been some effort from the government to increase the safety of injection practices, greater efforts are required, especially with regard to standardization of policies and procedures related to injection practice. © 2014 Gyawali et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Rathore D.S.,Rajasthan Pharmacy College |
Adhikari K.,Pokhara University |
Shankar P.R.,KIST Medical College |
Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
And 2 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2014
Background: Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. Methods. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Results: Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Conclusions: Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to, drug dispensing, counseling, dressing of wounds, and administering injections. However, the lack of qualified staff and adequate infrastructure may be compromising the quality of the services offered. Therefore, the health authorities should take the necessary measures to upgrade the qualifications of the personnel and to improve the infrastructure for the sake of good pharmacy practice and the safer use of injections. © 2014Gyawali et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
PubMed | Patan Academy of Health science, KIST Medical College, Xavier University School of Medicine, NIMS University and University of Aden
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC research notes | Year: 2017
Pharmacovigilance activities are in a developing stage in Nepal. ADR reporting is mainly confined to healthcare professionals working in institutions recognized as regional pharmacovigilance centers. Community pharmacists could play an important role in pharmacovigilance. This study was conducted among community pharmacists in Lalitpur district to examine their knowledge and attitude about pharmacovigilance before and after an educational intervention.Knowledge and attitude was studied before, immediately after and 6weeks following the intervention among 75 community pharmacists. Responses were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A pretested questionnaire having twelve and nine statements for assessing knowledge and attitude were used. The overall scores were obtained by adding the knowledge and attitude scores and overall scores were summarized using median and interquartile range. Wilcoxon signed-rank test for repeated samples was used to compare the differences between knowledge and attitude of the pharmacists before and after the educational program.Knowledge scores [median (interquartile range)] improved significantly between pre-test [39 (44-46)], post-test [44 (44-44)] and retention period of 6weeks after the intervention [46 (43-46)]. Knowledge score improved immediately post-intervention among both males [44 (41-47)] and females [44 (43-45)] but the retention scores (after 6weeks) were higher [46 (42-48)] among males. Attitude scores improved significantly among females [46 (44-48)]. The overall scores were higher among pharmacists from rural areas.Knowledge and attitude scores improved after the educational intervention. Further studies in other regions of the country are required. The national pharmacovigilance center should promote awareness about ADR reporting among community pharmacists.
Rothpletz-Puglia P.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
Storm D.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
Burr C.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
Samuels D.,Nova Southeastern University
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2012
The purpose of this exploratory study was to solicit women's opinions about the process of routine prenatal HIV testing to identify strategies for routine testing that will address women's concerns, increase their level of comfort with testing, and support universal prenatal HIV testing. A convenience sample of English-speaking women between 18 and 45 years of age who were HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status were recruited for focus groups at four diverse community sites in four states. Focus group discussion questions addressed health care provider approaches and actions that would make a woman feel more comfortable with the process of routine prenatal HIV testing. Twenty-five women agreed to participate; most women (64%) were of Black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity; 44% were 25-34 years of age. Thematic analysis of women's concerns about routine prenatal HIV testing fell into the following categories: fear, protecting the baby, protecting the woman, confidentiality, and stigma.Women's strategies for addressing these concerns were related to themes of education and information, normalizing HIV testing, patient-provider relationships, systems, and private communication. Participants offered numerous insightful and practical suggestions for addressing their concerns thereby supporting universal routine prenatal HIV testing. The themes that arose in this study support the conclusion that women will be more comfortable with routine prenatal HIV testing if they are fully informed and knowledgeable about the rationale for HIV testing during pregnancy and their right to decline, and if testing is carried out in a confidential and supportive health care environment. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.
Gupta S.,Pennsylvania State University |
Kanamalla U.,Temple University |
Gupta V.,Xavier University School of Medicine
Journal of Child Neurology | Year: 2010
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that children with developmental delay without regression of unknown etiology are more likely to have intracranial incidental findings than are children with autistic spectrum disorder or children with normal development. Of 771 patients with magnetic resonance images, 363 (47.1%) patients had developmental delay, 55 (7.1%) had autistic spectrum disorders, and 353 (45.8%) were developmentally normal. Developmentally delayed children were more likely than those with normal development (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.5; P <.001) or those with autistic spectrum disorder (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1; P =.019) to have an intracranial incidental finding. We report a higher prevalence of intracranial incidental findings in children with developmental delay as compared with those children with normal development. Future study should confirm whether the result of this study is merely incidental or truly related to a subgroup of children with developmental disability. © 2010 The Author(s).
Hoyt M.J.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
Storm D.S.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
Aaron E.,Drexel University |
Anderson J.,Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012
Women living with HIV have fertility desires and intentions that are similar to those of uninfected women, and with advances in treatment most women can realistically plan to have and raise children to adulthood. Although HIV may have adverse effects on fertility, recent studies suggest that antiretroviral therapy may increase or restore fertility. Data indicate the increasing numbers of women living with HIV who are becoming pregnant, and that many pregnancies are unintended and contraception is underutilized, reflecting an unmet need for preconception care (PCC). In addition to the PCC appropriate for all women of reproductive age, women living with HIV require comprehensive, specialized care that addresses their unique needs. The goals of PCC for women living with HIV are to prevent unintended pregnancy, optimize maternal health prior to pregnancy, improve maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancy, prevent perinatal HIV transmission, and prevent HIV transmission to an HIV-uninfected sexual partner when trying to conceive. This paper discusses the rationale for preconception counseling and care in the setting of HIV and reviews current literature relevant to the content and considerations in providing PCC for women living with HIV, with a primary focus on well-resourced settings. © 2012 Mary Jo Hoyt et al.
Malee K.,Childrens Memorial Hospital |
Williams P.,Center for Biostatistics in Research |
Montepiedra G.,Center for Biostatistics in Research |
McCabe M.,Kennedy Krieger Institute |
And 5 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2011
The impact of behavioral functioning on medication adherence in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection is not well-explored, but has important implications for intervention. This report addresses the relationship between behavioral functioning and child self-report or caregiver report of medication adherence among children and adolescents enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 219C (conducted 2000-2007). A total of 1134 participants, aged 3-17 years, received a behavioral evaluation and adherence assessment. Complete adherence was defined as taking 100% of prescribed antiretroviral medications during three days preceding the study visit. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between adherence and behavioral functioning, adjusting for potential confounders, including demographic, psychosocial, and health factors. Children demonstrated higher than expected rates of behavioral impairment (≈7% expected with T > 65) in the areas of conduct problems (14%, z = 7.0, p < 0.001), learning problems (22%, z = 12.2, p < 0.001), somatic complaints (22%, z = 12.6, p < 0.001), impulsivity-hyperactivity (20%, z = 11.1, p < 0.001), and hyperactivity (19%, z = 10.6, p < 0.001). Children with behavioral impairment in one or more areas had significantly increased odds of nonadherence [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.49, p = 0.04]. The odds of nonadherence were significantly higher for those with conduct problems and general hyperactivity (aOR = 2.03, p = 0.005 and aOR = 1.68, p = 0.02, respectively). Psychosocial and health factors, such as recent stressful life events and higher HIV RNA levels, were also associated with nonadherence. Knowledge of behavioral, health, and social influences affecting the child and family should guide the development of appropriate, evidence-based interventions for medication adherence. Copyright © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Buchanan A.L.,Center for Biostatistics in Research |
Montepiedra G.,Center for Biostatistics in Research |
Sirois P.A.,Tulane University |
Kammerer B.,Childrens Hospital Boston |
And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012
OBJECTIVE: Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy among children/ youth with HIV often is associated with disease progression. This study examined the agreement between child and caregiver perceptions of barriers to adherence and factors associated with these barriers. METHODS: Children/youth with perinatally acquired HIV and their parents/caregivers (n = 120 dyads) completed a questionnaire about 19 potential barriers to adherence to the child's antiretroviral therapy regimen. Agreement between the 2 reports was measured via the kappa statistic. Factors associated with the barriers were assessed by using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 120 children, 55% were African American, 54% were boys, and the average age was 12.8 years. The most frequently reported barrier by either the caregiver or youth was "forgot." There were varying degrees of agreement between child and caregiver on the following barriers: "forgot," "taste," "child was away from home,""child refused," and "child felt good." Children who knew their HIV status were more likely to report logistical barriers, such as scheduling issues. Children with a biological parent as their caregiver were more likely to report regimen or fear of disclosure as a barrier. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of agreement was observed for more than half of the studied barriers, indicating discrepancies between children's and caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence medication-taking. The findings suggest a need for interventions that involve both child and caregiver in the tasks of remembering when to administer the child's medications, sustaining adherence, and appropriately transitioning medication responsibility to the youth. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Shankar P.R.,Xavier University School of Medicine |
Nandy A.,Xavier University School of Medicine
Australasian Medical Journal | Year: 2014
Aims PBL processes have not been studied previously at the Xavier University School of Medicine, hence the present study was carried out to obtain information about the PBL processes and note differences, if any, among different groups of students.Method The study was conducted among first- to fourth-semester undergraduate medical students during July 2014 using a previously validated PBL processes instrument developed by van den Hurk et al. Information about gender, semester, weekly hours of study, and learning resources used was obtained. Respondents’ agreement with a set of 23 statements was noted using a Likert-type scale, which was scored as 1=totally disagree with the statement, 2=disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree, and 5=totally agree with the statement. Mean scores were compared among different groups of respondents.Results Fifty-one of the 58 students (87.9 per cent) participated. The weekly average study time was 29.9 hours. Lecture handouts and textbooks were commonly used information sources. The mean scores (scale 1 to 5) for learning-issue-driven searching, and extensiveness of searching were 3.49 and 3.45, respectively. The score for explanation-oriented preparation was 3.94, while those for breadth and depth of discussion were 3.75 and 3.62, respectively. Most scores were higher among second-semester students, but the difference was not significant.Conclusion The self-reported scores were comparable to those reported in previous studies done using the same PBL processes instrument in other medical schools. At Xavier University School of Medicine interactive lectures are the major teaching method and topics covered during PBL are also likely to be covered during lectures, which could influence the scores. The findings of our study providing information about how students function during PBL brainstorming and presentation sessions and how they use different learning resources would be of interest to other medical schools worldwide following a hybrid curriculum. Further studies are required.Background Problem-based learning (PBL) sessions consist of a brainstorming phase, search phase, individual study, and reporting phase. At the Xavier University School of Medicine, Aruba, PBL is a new learning modality first introduced in May 2013. © 2014, Australasian Medical Journal Allrights received.