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Michael K.,University of Wollongong | Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd | Clarke R.,University of New South Wales | Clarke R.,Australian National University
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2013

During the last decade, location-Tracking and monitoring applications have proliferated, in mobile cellular and wireless data networks, and through self-reporting by applications running in smartphones that are equipped with onboard global positioning system (GPS) chipsets. It is now possible to locate a smartphone user's location not merely to a cell, but to a small area within it. Innovators have been quick to capitalise on these location-based technologies for commercial purposes, and have gained access to a great deal of sensitive personal data in the process. In addition, law enforcement utilises these technologies, can do so inexpensively and hence can track many more people. Moreover, these agencies seek the power to conduct tracking covertly, and without a judicial warrant. This article investigates the dimensions of the problem of people-Tracking through the devices that they carry. Location surveillance has very serious negative implications for individuals, yet there are very limited safeguards. It is incumbent on legislatures to address these problems, through both domestic laws and multilateral processes. © 2013 Katina Michael and Roger Clarke. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd | Clarke R.,University of New South Wales | Clarke R.,Australian National University
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2012

A review of articles in the technical media between 2005 and 3Q 2011 disclosed reports on 49 outages involving 20 cloudsourcing providers. Several of these were major events. Many caused difficulties for user-organisations' staff. Some caused lengthy suspension of services by user-organisations to their customers. A number of them involved irretrievable loss of data. Many user-organisations have failed to risk-assess their use of cloudsourcing, and are exposing their businesses to unmanaged risks. © 2012 Roger Clarke. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd | Clarke R.,Australian National University | Wigan M.,Oxford Systematic | Wigan M.,Imperial College London
Journal of Location Based Services | Year: 2011

A decade ago, technologies that could provide information about the location of a motor vehicle, or a computer or a person, were in their infancy. A wide range of tools, processes and systems are now in use and in prospect, which threaten to strip away another layer of the limited protections that individuals enjoy. An understanding of the landscape of location and tracking technologies, and of the issues that they give rise to, depends on establishing a specialist language that enables meaningful and reasonably unambiguous discussion to take place. An outline of the familiar case of mobile phones, complemented by deeper assessments of road tolling and the surveillance of individual motor vehicles on the road, provides a basis for appreciation of the substantial threats that location technologies represent to free society. This investigation describes location-based systems' generic privacy threats, and identifies such specific threats as psychological harm, social harm, behavioural profiling, political harm and actual repression. Controls and protections are identified to counter these threats to privacy. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine | Year: 2012

The power and reach of government agencies and corporations have increased greatly in the last few decades, and the prospects, and threats, inherent in so-called 'public private partnerships' now loom large. The terrorist attacks of the first decade of the new century have been ruthlessly exploited by national security agencies not only to recover but to considerably extend their powers, to give them even greater freedom from democratic controls, and to increase their resources. Law enforcement agencies and even social control agencies have gained powers as well, in part by clinging to the coat-tails of national security. © 2012 IEEE. Source


Svantesson D.,Bond University | Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2010

While vaguely defined, and wide in scope, so-called 'cloud computing' has gained considerable attention in recent times. Put simply, it refers to an arrangement under which a user relies on another party to provide access to remote computers and software, whose whereabouts, including their jurisdictional location, are not known nor controllable by the user. In this article, we examine the privacy and consumer risks that are associated with cloud computing. © 2010 Hogan Lovells. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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