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Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd | Clarke R.,Australian National University | Wigan M.,Oxford Systematic | Wigan M.,Imperial College London
Journal of Location Based Services | Year: 2011

A decade ago, technologies that could provide information about the location of a motor vehicle, or a computer or a person, were in their infancy. A wide range of tools, processes and systems are now in use and in prospect, which threaten to strip away another layer of the limited protections that individuals enjoy. An understanding of the landscape of location and tracking technologies, and of the issues that they give rise to, depends on establishing a specialist language that enables meaningful and reasonably unambiguous discussion to take place. An outline of the familiar case of mobile phones, complemented by deeper assessments of road tolling and the surveillance of individual motor vehicles on the road, provides a basis for appreciation of the substantial threats that location technologies represent to free society. This investigation describes location-based systems' generic privacy threats, and identifies such specific threats as psychological harm, social harm, behavioural profiling, political harm and actual repression. Controls and protections are identified to counter these threats to privacy. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Michael K.,University of Wollongong | Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd. | Clarke R.,University of New South Wales | Clarke R.,Australian National University
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2013

During the last decade, location-Tracking and monitoring applications have proliferated, in mobile cellular and wireless data networks, and through self-reporting by applications running in smartphones that are equipped with onboard global positioning system (GPS) chipsets. It is now possible to locate a smartphone user's location not merely to a cell, but to a small area within it. Innovators have been quick to capitalise on these location-based technologies for commercial purposes, and have gained access to a great deal of sensitive personal data in the process. In addition, law enforcement utilises these technologies, can do so inexpensively and hence can track many more people. Moreover, these agencies seek the power to conduct tracking covertly, and without a judicial warrant. This article investigates the dimensions of the problem of people-Tracking through the devices that they carry. Location surveillance has very serious negative implications for individuals, yet there are very limited safeguards. It is incumbent on legislatures to address these problems, through both domestic laws and multilateral processes. © 2013 Katina Michael and Roger Clarke. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd | Pucihar A.,University of Maribor
Electronic Markets | Year: 2013

Electronic interaction (EI) depends on technological capabilities that have only become available during the last quarter-century. The Bled eConference has straddled this period. A review of the conference's successive themes, and of the corpus of over 1,000 papers presented at the 25 events to date, reveals three major Eras, referred to in this paper as the EDI, eCommerce and eInteraction Eras. A trace of the developments in the diverse array of EI technologies and EI-technologies-in-use shows that researchers have focussed very heavily on economic concerns, and until recent years did so almost to the exclusion of social concerns. The paper proposes that EI research needs to seek better balances between organisational and human needs. In addition, because of the instability of bleeding-edge phenomena, empirical research is being published too late to deliver much value to practitioners. The prevailing expectations of journals that rigour be pursued at all costs means that the relevance of research to the real world has become a quite secondary concern to many academics. The EI literature is accordingly at risk of following the IS literature more generally into a closed enclave, in which academics talk to one another and no-one else. Key precepts for an alternative research philosophy are proposed. © 2013 The Author(s).

Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd | Clarke R.,University of New South Wales | Clarke R.,Australian National University
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2012

A review of articles in the technical media between 2005 and 3Q 2011 disclosed reports on 49 outages involving 20 cloudsourcing providers. Several of these were major events. Many caused difficulties for user-organisations' staff. Some caused lengthy suspension of services by user-organisations to their customers. A number of them involved irretrievable loss of data. Many user-organisations have failed to risk-assess their use of cloudsourcing, and are exposing their businesses to unmanaged risks. © 2012 Roger Clarke. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd | Clarke R.,Australian National University | Clarke R.,University of New South Wales
Information Systems Journal | Year: 2016

The 'big data' literature, academic as well as professional, has a very strong focus on opportunities. Far less attention has been paid to the threats that arise from repurposing data, consolidating data from multiple sources, applying analytical tools to the resulting collections, drawing inferences, and acting on them. On the basis of a review of quality factors in 'big data' and 'big data analytics', illustrated by means of scenario analysis, this paper draws attention to the moral and legal responsibility of computing researchers and professionals to temper their excitement, and apply reality checks to their promotional activities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd | Clarke R.,University of NSW | Clarke R.,National School in Computer Science
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine | Year: 2014

During the last century a variety of surveillance technologies have arrived, have been deployed, and have had impacts on society, both significantly positive and seriously negative. One of these, digital cameras, emerged in the late 1980s, and quickly developed into a means of creating high-quality images and video. These cameras have become both inexpensive and sufficiently small to be not merely carried but also worn. © 1982-2012 IEEE.

Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd. | Clarke R.,Australian National University | Clarke R.,University of Sydney
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2014

Drones are aircraft that have no onboard, human pilot. Through the twentieth century, piloted aircraft made far greater progress than drones. During the twenty-first century, on the other hand, changes in both drone technologies and drone economics have been much more rapid. Particularly in the case of small, inexpensive devices, the question arises as to whether existing regulatory frameworks can cope. To answer that question, it is necessary to document the nature and characteristics of drones, the dimensions across which they vary, the purposes to which they are put, and the impacts that they appear likely to have. The analysis concludes that careful consideration is needed of the adequacy of controls over the impacts of drones on two important values - public safety, and behavioural privacy. © 2014 Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd
IEEE Technology and Society Magazine | Year: 2012

The power and reach of government agencies and corporations have increased greatly in the last few decades, and the prospects, and threats, inherent in so-called 'public private partnerships' now loom large. The terrorist attacks of the first decade of the new century have been ruthlessly exploited by national security agencies not only to recover but to considerably extend their powers, to give them even greater freedom from democratic controls, and to increase their resources. Law enforcement agencies and even social control agencies have gained powers as well, in part by clinging to the coat-tails of national security. © 2012 IEEE.

Svantesson D.,Bond University | Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd.
Computer Law and Security Review | Year: 2010

While vaguely defined, and wide in scope, so-called 'cloud computing' has gained considerable attention in recent times. Put simply, it refers to an arrangement under which a user relies on another party to provide access to remote computers and software, whose whereabouts, including their jurisdictional location, are not known nor controllable by the user. In this article, we examine the privacy and consumer risks that are associated with cloud computing. © 2010 Hogan Lovells. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Clarke R.,Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd
IEEE Cloud Computing | Year: 2015

Software-as-a-service (SaaS) providers have achieved dramatic take-up rates for their services. However, they are placing their businesses at risk through their inadequate attention to security issues. Nowhere is this more evident than in the area of backup and recovery. When assessed against users' needs for assured accessibility of the data that they entrust to the cloud, SaaS services are found to be untrustworthy, and very hard to work with. © 2014 IEEE.

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