Dolan M.,Monash University |
Blattner R.,Wythenshawe Hospital
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2010
Background: Structured Professional Judgment (SPJ) approaches to violence risk assessment are increasingly being adopted into clinical practice in international forensic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the Historical Clinical Risk -20 (HCR-20) violence risk assessment scale for outcome following transfers from high to medium security in a United Kingdom setting.Methods: The sample was predominately male and mentally ill and the majority of cases were detained under the criminal section of the Mental Health Act (1986). The HCR-20 was rated based on detailed case file information on 72 cases transferred from high to medium security. Outcomes were examined, independent of risk score, and cases were classed as "success or failure" based on established criteria.Results: The mean length of follow up was 6 years. The total HCR-20 score was a robust predictor of failure at lower levels of security and return to high security. The Clinical and Risk management items contributed most to predictive accuracy.Conclusions: Although the HCR-20 was designed as a violence risk prediction tool our findings suggest it has potential utility in decisions to transfer patients from high to lower levels of security. © 2010 Dolan and Blattner; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Denning D.W.,University of Manchester |
Denning D.W.,Wythenshawe Hospital |
Pleuvry A.,Oncalex |
Cole D.C.,University of Toronto
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) may complicate pulmonary sarcoidosis. We re-estimated the global burden of sarcoidosis and the burden of CPA complicating sarcoidosis. We searched the literature and reference lists of retrieved papers to identify all published sarcoidosis incidence and prevalence data. We estimated the frequency of CPA from 11 papers relating to >3,000 patients with sarcoidosis to derive CPA patient numbers. We applied an annual attrition rate of 15% (range 10-25%) to estimate the global burden of CPA. We estimate that the annual incidence of sarcoidosis is 344,000 patients worldwide and the prevalence is ,1,238,000 cases, distributed as follows: 165,979 in Europe, 224,000 in the Americas, 492,892 in Africa, 80,023 in the Eastern Mediterranean, 41,660 in the West Pacific and 234,010 in Southeast Asia. CPA complicates sarcoidosis in 3-12% of cases. Using a 6% frequency, we estimate a global burden of 71,907 (range 35,954-143,815 (3-12%)) CPA cases complicating sarcoidosis, with 24% and 37% of cases estimated to be present in the Americas and Africa, because of the higher incidence of sarcoidosis in black people. As CPA responds to long-term antifungal therapy, which may prevent life-threatening haemoptysis, screening periodically for CPA in those with pulmonary sarcoidosis may be important, especially in patients requiring corticosteroid therapy.
Page S.,Wythenshawe Hospital |
Keady J.,University of Manchester
Ageing and Society | Year: 2010
People with dementia are finding increasingly creative and diverse ways of making their voice heard in society and one such method is through the publication of autobiographical accounts. Following set inclusion criteria, this meta-ethnographic analysis compares and contrasts the contents of 12 books written by people with dementia and published between 1989 (the year of publication of the first text) and the end of 2007 (the selected cut-off point for inclusion). Of the 12 books, three authors were published twice, five were male, eight were from the United States of America, one was Australian and all nine had a professional background. Eight of the authors had Alzheimer's disease and one had fronto-temporal dementia. The average age of the narrator was 51.5 years (age range 38-61 years). Meta-ethnographic analysis of the 12 books inductively generated five themes that linked each story and these were: (a) awareness of change; (b) experiencing loss; (c) standing up and bearing witness; (d) sustaining continuity; and (e) liberation and death. The importance of reconstructing identity appeared a pivotal process in living with the onset and progression of dementia together with maintaining key social relationships and networks. © 2009 Cambridge University Press.
Nonaka D.,Christie Hospital |
Nonaka D.,University of Manchester |
Bishop P.W.,Wythenshawe Hospital
American Journal of Surgical Pathology | Year: 2014
A group of tumors referred to as atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS) predominantly occur in sun-damaged skin of the elderly, particularly in the head and neck region. Although this group of tumors is often regarded as of mesenchymal phenotype, the matter of histogenesis has not been entirely resolved. Evans H and Smith JL reported in 1980 that prognosis was not significantly different irrespective of whether there was a definite squamous cell carcinoma component or not, supporting a view that these are all carcinomata in nature (sarcomatoid carcinoma [SC]). There are a number of clinicopathologic studies of AFX in the literature but information on morphologically similar sarcoma-like tumors with immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial differentiation is sparse. One hundred sarcoma-like tumors (SLTs) of head and neck skin of the elderly, treated by surgical excision, were studied. Clinical information was obtained, and pathology reports and hematoxylin and eosin sections were reviewed to document size (maximum dimension), extent of invasion, mitotic count, vascular and perineural invasion, margin status, ulceration, necrosis, and the presence of actinic keratosis in adjacent/overlying skin. Immunostains examined included: pan-cytokeratins (CKs) (AE1/AE3, MNF116), high-molecular weight CKs (34βE12, CK5/6, CK14), p63, and melanocytic (S100, Melan A, HMB-45, MITF), vascular (CD31, CD34), and muscle markers (SMA, desmin, h-caldesmon) to exclude melanoma and definite sarcoma entities. The tumors were divided into AFX/PDS (G1), the SC group, which was subdivided into SLT with only p63 positivity (G2a) and SLT with CK positivity regardless of p63 status (G2b), and SLT with a minor morphologic squamous cell carcinoma component (G3). Clinicopathologic findings of each group were compared, in relation to outcomes. Age at diagnosis ranged from 51 to 96 years (median, 79 y), with M:F=11.5:1. There were 53 tumors in G1 (19AFX, 34PDS), 37 in G2 (25 in G2a, 12 in G2b), and 10 in G3. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical and pathologic parameters or survival among all 3 groups. CKs and p63 expression, size, extent of invasion, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, mitotic count, and ulcer did not affect outcome, whereas margin status and necrosis did by both univariate and multivariate analysis and by only univariate analysis, respectively. Sixty patients had multiple nonmelanomatous skin cancers. Actinic keratosis was observed in overlying/adjacent epidermis in 51 cases. Eight patients had prior radiotherapy to head skin cancers; 1 patient developed 2 separate tumors (G1 and G3) after radiotherapy. Four patients died of tumor (1 G1, 2 G2b, and 1 G3); of these, 3 cases had positive margin, and 1 had narrow margin. Our results have shown similarities of various clinicopathologic parameters between AFX/PDS and SC, raising the possibility that both entities are related, and some of the former entities may represent complete dedifferentiation (complete loss of epithelial phenotype) with a gain of mesenchymal phenotype. In addition, the difference between AFX and PDS appears to be the extent of invasiveness (stage) rather than a different histogenesis. Further investigations are needed. However, from a practical point of view, efforts should be made to excise this group of tumors with clear margins, as margin status appears to be the most important prognostic factor regardless of the presence or absence of epithelial differentiation. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Howell J.W.,Samaritan Orthopaedics Luis Vela |
Peck F.,Wythenshawe Hospital
Injury | Year: 2013
In recent years, a significant amount of research in the field of tendon injury in the hand has contributed to advances in both surgical and rehabilitation techniques. The introduction of early motion has improved tendon healing, reduced complications, and enhanced final outcomes. There is overwhelming evidence to show that carefully devised rehabilitation programs are critical to achieving favourable outcomes. Whatever the type, or level, of flexor or extensor injury, the ultimate goal of both the surgeon and therapist is to protect the repair, modify peritendinous adhesions, promote optimal tendon excursion and preserve joint motion. Early tendon motion regimens are initiated at surgery or within 5 days post repair. Intra-operative information from the surgeon to the therapist is vital to the choice of splint protected position to reduce repair rupture/gap forces, and to commencement of active, or splint controlled, motion for tendon excursion. Decisions should align with the phases of healing, the clinician's observations, frequent range of motion measurements and patient input. Clinical concepts pertinent to early motion rehabilitation decisions are presented by zone of injury for both flexor and extensor tendons during the early phases of healing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Teo Y.W.,Wythenshawe Hospital |
Greenhalgh D.L.,Wythenshawe Hospital
European Journal of Anaesthesiology | Year: 2010
Pulmonary hypertensive patients going for surgery are at significant risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. They pose a clinically challenging situation for the anaesthetist and strategies to minimize the effects on these patients are discussed. Recent advances have allowed a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms and development of new therapies. We present a framework for preoperative assessment and optimization. An update on the recent advances in medical therapy with calcium channel blockers, prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors is provided and relevant anaesthetic concerns highlighted. Key strategies for intraoperative management are presented and we review the options and novel strategies for managing an acute episode of decompensated pulmonary hypertension intraoperatively. Promising new therapies being explored include intraoperative delivery of inhaled milrinone and inhaled prostacyclin analogues. © 2010 Copyright European Society of Anaesthesiology.
Dimarakis I.,Wythenshawe Hospital
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy | Year: 2016
Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass has undoubtedly been the cornerstone in the rapid development of cardiac surgery, allowing even the performance of procedures beyond the scope of cardiothoracic surgery. Its use however, is associated with significant complications that arise from the mechanical effects of the circuit on circulating blood components as well as the contact of blood with non-endothelial surfaces. Miniature cardiopulmonary bypass systems have been developed in an attempt to minimize these complications. Areas covered: Herein clinical outcomes from the most recent studies in adult cardiac surgery are discussed. The main benefits of miniaturisation as well as potential areas of further application are described. Expert commentary: Data is critically appraised in the context of current guidelines. Finally the need for further basic science in addition to large multi-centre randomized controlled trial data is highlighted. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Lowrie A.G.,Ninewells Hospital |
Lees V.C.,Wythenshawe Hospital
Journal of Hand Surgery: European Volume | Year: 2014
The use of the digital flexor sheath to reconstruct damaged structures in the fingers is an intriguing but under-investigated subject. The sheath is anchored firmly to the phalanges and palmar plates and has well-vascularized outer and synovial inner layers. The middle layer is strong and fibrous and not all of it is required for its main biomechanical function of maintaining the moment arm of the flexor tendons. These characteristics have led to several descriptions of different reconstructive uses. In sheath reconstruction, flaps can be used to repair damaged A2 and A4 pulleys. As an anchor, the sheath is useful for tenodeses and tendon transfers. It has been used in the correction of ulnar claw and swan neck deformities. In ligament reconstruction, the A1 pulley has been used to reconstruct the transverse intermetacarpal ligament in cleft hand and ray amputations. The sheath has also been used to cover tendon repairs and periosteal defects with the aim of decreasing adhesions. There is potential for further use of the flexor sheath in reconstructive surgery.The digital flexor sheath can be used to restore various finger functions providing its physiological roles are recognized and preserved. This review considers the different techniques described and their potential uses. © The Author(s) 2013.
Henson C.,Wythenshawe Hospital
Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology | Year: 2010
Late onset bowel dysfunction post-pelvic radiotherapy is an increasingly common clinical scenario which is related to improved oncological treatments and cancer survival. 50% of patients develop bowel symptoms after pelvic radiotherapy which affects quality of life. Historically, bowel symptoms post-pelvic radiotherapy have been labelled 'chronic radiation proctitis', although it is increasingly recognised that these symptoms are due to dysfunction of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract at numerous points. The evidence-base is poor and comprises often small, heterogenous, single centre unblinded studies. This article critically reviews the evidence for the medical treatment options for 'chronic radiation proctitis', which include anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, sucralfate, formalin and hyperbaric oxygen. The difficulties in extrapolation from the literature to clinical practise are also explored. From the available evidence, rectal sucralfate appears to have greater efficacy than anti-inflammatory agents, which are more effective if used with oral metronidazole. Furthermore, hyperbaric oxygen is emerging as promising treatment for radiation toxicity. However, bowel dysfunction post-pelvic radiotherapy is a complex clinical condition which reflects multi-site GI tract pathologies both related and unrelated to previous oncological treatments. From this review article a clear need for an adjustment to both diagnosis and treatment of these patients, as well as for further research, emerges. © The Author(s), 2010.
McMahon S.,Wythenshawe Hospital |
Lovell M.,Wythenshawe Hospital
Acta Orthopaedica Belgica | Year: 2012
The purpose of the study was to assess the safety of Intra-articular steroid hip injections (IASHI), prior to ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA). We investigated whether there was an excess of infection in such a group 7-10 years after total hip arthroplasty. A database of 49 patients who had undergone IASHI followed by ipsilateral THA was reviewed. The mean length of time between injection and arthroplasty was 12.1 months (5.1-19 months). We found 7 major complications. Ten patients died with no further hip surgery at a mean of 28 months from surgery 3 were lost to follow-up. The remaining group (36) were contacted by telephone at a mean of 97.8 (85-117) months from their surgery. No objective signs of joint infection were found. We believe our results show that ipsilateral steroid injection does not confer an increased risk of complications following subsequent THA, over an extended follow up. © 2012, Acta Orthopedica Belgica.