El Segundo, CA, United States
El Segundo, CA, United States

Wyle is a privately held provider of specialized engineering, scientific and technical services to the Department of Defense, NASA, and a variety of commercial customers primarily in the aerospace industry. The Company offers services in the areas of test and evaluation; systems engineering and information technology; life cycle and acquisition program management; life sciences research; space medical operations and engineering; and qualification testing for systems and components.Founded in 1949, the Company is still headquartered in El Segundo, California, and has approximately 4,800 employees at more than 50 facilities nationwide. Wyle comprises three primary operating entities: Aerospace Group, CAS Group, and Integrated Science and Engineering Group. Annual revenue is approximately $1.1 billion. Wikipedia.

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Bloomberg J.J.,NASA | Peters B.T.,Wyle | Cohen H.S.,Baylor College of Medicine | Mulavara A.P.,Universities Space Research Association
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments—enhancing their ability to “learn to learn.” We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. © 2015 Bloomberg, Peters, Cohen and Mulavara.

Clement G.R.,Wyle | Bukley A.P.,United International University Dhanmondi | Paloski W.H.,NASA
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience | Year: 2015

In spite of the experience gained in human space flight since Yuri Gagarin’s historical flight in 1961, there has yet to be identified a completely effective countermeasure for mitigating the effects of weightlessness on humans. Were astronauts to embark upon a journey to Mars today, the 6-month exposure to weightlessness en route would leave them considerably debilitated, even with the implementation of the suite of piece-meal countermeasures currently employed. Continuous or intermittent exposure to simulated gravitational states on board the spacecraft while traveling to and from Mars, also known as artificial gravity, has the potential for enhancing adaptation to Mars gravity and re-adaptation to Earth gravity. Many physiological functions are adversely affected by the weightless environment of spaceflight because they are calibrated for normal, Earth’s gravity. Hence, the concept of artificial gravity is to provide a broad-spectrum replacement for the gravitational forces that naturally occur on the Earth’s surface, thereby avoiding the physiological deconditioning that takes place in weightlessness. Because researchers have long been concerned by the adverse sensorimotor effects that occur in weightlessness as well as in rotating environments, additional study of the complex interactions among sensorimotor and other physiological systems in rotating environments must be undertaken both on Earth and in space before artificial gravity can be implemented. © 2015 Clément, Bukley and Paloski.

Liu Z.,George Mason University | Ostrenga D.,ADNET Systems | Teng W.,Wyle | Kempler S.,NASA
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2012

The GES DISC is aimed to provide free, quasiglobal archive and near-real-time precipitation products and services for research and applications. The NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products archived at and distributed from the GES DISC are organized in categories such as orbital products, gridded products, and other TRMM-related products. Mirador is designed to facilitate data searching, accessing, and downloading, while The TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS) is a convenient stand-alone tool to visualize all TRMM standard products. The GrADS Data Server is a stable, secure data server that provides subsetting and analysis services across the Internet and offers a convenient way for GrADS users to access TRMM data. In collaboration with the GES DISC, USDA FAS is routinely using near-real-time global satellite-derived precipitation data to monitor crop conditions around the world.

Han J.,Wyle | Pan H.-L.,National Centers for Environmental Prediction Environmental Modeling Center
Weather and Forecasting | Year: 2011

A new physics package containing revised convection and planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction's Global Forecast System is described. The shallow convection (SC) scheme in the revision employs a mass flux parameterization replacing the old turbulent diffusion-based approach. For deep convection, the scheme is revised to make cumulus convection stronger and deeper to deplete more instability in the atmospheric column and result in the suppression of the excessive grid-scale precipitation. The PBL model was revised to enhance turbulence diffusion in stratocumulus regions. A remarkable difference between the new and old SC schemes is seen in the heating or cooling behavior in lower-atmospheric layers above the PBL. While the old SC scheme using the diffusion approach produces a pair of layers in the lower atmosphere with cooling above and heating below, the new SC scheme using the mass-flux approach produces heating throughout the convection layers. In particular, the new SC scheme does not destroy stratocumulus clouds off the west coasts of South America and Africa as the old scheme does. On the other hand, the revised deep convection scheme, having a larger cloud-base mass flux and higher cloud tops, appears to effectively eliminate the remaining instability in the atmospheric column that is responsible for the excessive grid-scale precipitation in the old scheme. The revised PBL scheme, having an enhanced turbulence mixing in stratocumulus regions, helps prevent too much low cloud from forming. An overall improvement was found in the forecasts of the global 500-hPa height, vector wind, and continental U.S. precipitation with the revised model. Consistent with the improvement in vector wind forecast errors, hurricane track forecasts are also improved with the revised model for both Atlantic and eastern Pacific hurricanes in 2008. © 2011 American Meteorological Society.

Novella N.S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Novella N.S.,Wyle | Thiaw W.M.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2013

This paper describes a new gridded, daily 29-yr precipitation estimation dataset centered over Africa at 0.18 spatial resolution. Called the African Rainfall Climatology, version 2 (ARC2), it is a revision of the first version of the ARC. Consistent with the operational Rainfall Estimation, version 2, algorithm (RFE2), ARC2 uses inputs from two sources: 1) 3-hourly geostationary infrared (IR) data centered over Africa from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and 2) qualitycontrolled Global Telecommunication System(GTS) gauge observations reporting 24-h rainfall accumulations over Africa. The main difference with ARC1 resides in the recalibration of all Meteosat First Generation (MFG) IR data (1983-2005). Results show thatARC2 is amajor improvement overARC1. It is consistent with other long-term datasets, such as the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), with correlation coefficients of 0.86 over a 27-yr period. However, a marginal summer dry bias that occurs over West and East Africa is examined. Daily validation with independent gauge data shows RMSEs of 11.3, 13.4, and 14, respectively, for ARC2, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis 3B42, version 6 (3B42v6), and the CPC morphing technique (CMORPH) for theWest African summer season. TheARC2 RMSE is slightly higher for Ethiopia than those of CMORPH and 3B42v6. Both daily and monthly validations suggested that ARC2 underestimations may be attributed to the unavailability of daily GTS gauge reports in real time, and deficiencies in the satellite estimate associated with precipitation processes over coastal and orographic areas. However, ARC2 is expected to provide users with real-time monitoring of the daily evolution of precipitation, which is instrumental in improved decision making in famine early warning systems.

Husaini S.,Wyle | Husaini S.,Air Force Research Lab | Bedford R.G.,Air Force Research Lab
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

Here, we report on the development of an antiresonant graphene-based one-dimensional structure which allows the control of linear and nonlinear device performance through optical confinement. A record average output in excess of 10 W is achieved by integrating this antiresonant graphene saturable absorber mirror into a vertical-external-cavity-surface-emitting-laser at 1030 nm, which leads to strong evidence of mode-locking, generating pulses with energies up to 2.8 nJ and a pulsewidth of 353 fs. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

NASA is developing a new crewed vehicle and desires a lower risk of injury compared to automotive or commercial aviation. Through an agreement with the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. (NASCAR®), an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new injury assessment reference values (IARV) that may be more relevant to NASA's context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by analyzing all NASCAR recorded impact data for the 2002-2008 race seasons. From the 4015 impact files, 274 impacts were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Hybrid III 50th percentile male Finite Element Model (FEM) in LS-DYNA. Head injury occurred in 27 of the 274 selected impacts, and all of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 247 noninjury impacts selected were representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of impacts. The probability of head injury was estimated for each metric using an ordered probit regression analysis. Four metrics had good correlation with the head injury data: head resultant acceleration, head change in velocity, HIC 15, and HIC 36. For a 5% risk of AIS≥1/AIS≥2 head injuries, the following IARVs were found: 121.3/133.2 G (head resultant acceleration), 20.3/22.0 m/s (head change in velocity), 1,156/1,347 (HIC 15), and 1,152/1,342 (HIC 36) respectively. Based on the results of this study, further analysis of additional datasets is recommended before applying these results to future NASA vehicles.

De Witt J.K.,Wyle
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2010

Researchers collecting gait kinematic data during treadmill locomotion are often interested in determining the times of toe off and heel strike for each stride. In the absence of additional hardware, only position data collected with motion-capture equipment may be available. Others have published methods for using kinematic data for detecting overground gait events. However, during treadmill locomotion, especially running, overground methods may not possess sufficient accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for using kinematic data to determine the time of toe off during treadmill locomotion. Ten subjects walked and ran on a treadmill while a motion-capture system collected positional data from heel and toe markers. The treadmill was equipped with force platforms that allowed an accurate determination of foot-ground contact. The time of toe off was determined using the vertical component of the toe marker, and this method was found to have greater accuracy for event detection than other published methods. Researchers can use the described method to determine times of heel strike and toe off during treadmill locomotion using only kinematic data. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

The exact Green's function of the diffusion equation (GFDE) is often considered to be the gold standard for the simulation of partially diffusion-controlled reactions. As the GFDE with angular dependency is quite complex, the radial GFDE is more often used. Indeed, the exact GFDE is expressed as a Legendre expansion, the coefficients of which are given in terms of an integral comprising Bessel functions. This integral does not seem to have been evaluated analytically in existing literature. While the integral can be evaluated numerically, the Bessel functions make the integral oscillate and convergence is difficult to obtain. Therefore it would be of great interest to evaluate the integral analytically. The first term was evaluated previously, and was found to be equal to the radial GFDE. In this work, the second term of this expansion was evaluated. As this work has shown that the first two terms of the Legendre polynomial expansion can be calculated analytically, it raises the question of the possibility that an analytical solution exists for the other terms. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

News Article | October 29, 2014
Site: www.cultofmac.com

Christian Bale might seem like the perfect actor to play Steve Jobs. Like the Apple founder, Bale is a perfectionist who cares so deeply about his craft that he can come across like a raging lunatic. Bale, who will star in Danny Boyle’s upcoming biopic about Jobs, might be the best hope yet for a riveting onscreen representation of Apple’s late leader. But for many Apple fans, a 1999 TV movie remains the definitive depiction of Jobs. That movie is Pirates of Silicon Valley, which tells the story of Apple versus Microsoft during a 20-year stretch starting in the late-1970s. With Pirates of Silicon Valley turning 15 this year, Cult of Mac spoke with its director, Martyn Burke, about Noah Wyle (who plays Jobs in the film), threatened lawsuits, and the miraculous way Jobs spun a potentially disastrous bit of PR into good press. “It seems like the film’s reputation is growing over time,” Burke says. “It’s been broadcast in South America, Russia, everywhere you can think of. At the time it came out, it was pretty successful, but to be talking about it after all these years is great.” Intriguingly, Burke says he had no interest when he was first offered the project in the late 1990s. Based on a book called Fire in the Valley, by writers Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine, he felt no connection to the story at all. “It was all about how the ‘286 computer’ became the ‘386’ and so on,” he says. “I was bored by it.” It was only when the studio asked Burke what he would like to do with the script that he began considering what a fascinating dramatic story he actually had to work with. “I’m a great believer in Shakespeare, and what we had was a modern equivalent of Hamlet, featuring two young princes, Bill Gates and Steve Jobs,” he says. “The more I read about Steve in particular, the more I saw him in those Shakespearean terms. He was brilliant, volcanic, obsessive, suspicious, even vicious in a business sense. He was about conquest, always conquest. I said, ‘That’s the sort of movie I want to make.’” Burke reworked the screenplay himself and signed on to direct. As he looked into the facts behind the story, he found that it dealt with a subject that most definitely was of interest to him: the California counterculture of the 1960s. “Steve Jobs was a descendant of this techno-counterculture,” he says. “There was this messianic quality that came out of San Francisco in the ’60s. It was about Berkeley, the Free Speech movement and flower power. What he was doing was part technological, and part insurrectionist.” The original plan was to shoot the film in Toronto. Around $1 million worth of sets had been built, representing a significant portion of the film’s $15 million budget. At the last moment, the producers of ER, who at the time employed star Noah Wyle, decided that they weren’t going to release the actor for the amount of time needed. “We had to shut the whole production down,” Burke says. “It was a huge body blow. For a while it looked as if we were dead.” The crew headed back to Los Angeles where, miraculously, the production was able to start up again. That wasn’t the end of the stress, however. On the first day of shooting proper, a copy of Fortune was delivered to the set. An article in the magazine claimed that both Microsoft and Apple were planning to get an injunction to shut down filming. Fortunately, nothing came of this. “Time-Warner had a big legal department and they came down on me like a ton of bricks before we started filming,” Burke says. “They picked apart every single line of the script. I felt like I was on trial. But it clearly worked, because we didn’t hear from anybody.” If tensions were running high off the set, a similar atmosphere dogged the Pirates of Silicon Valley cast and crew, who broke down into Mac and PC factions, arguing about the merits of each platform throughout filming. Who did Burke side with? “I was a PC guy going in, and coming out I was 100 percent a Mac guy,” he laughs. “Fifteen years later, nothing’s changed.” As good as Burke’s direction and screenplay is, however, much of the credit for Pirates of Silicon Valley must lie with Wyle. A bad film can be redeemed by a tremendous acting performance, and a good one can be made. From his appearance to his voice to his mannerisms, everything about Wyle’s performance perfectly evokes Apple’s co-founder. “Whatever was in the air, he just absorbed it,” Burke says. “He became Jobs. It was a remarkable transformation. We had a photo of Steve Jobs at about 28 years old, from the cover of Fortune magazine. We did a mockup with Noah and it was almost impossible to tell them apart.” Wyle is the standout, but there are other great performances in the film, including The Breakfast Club’s Anthony Michael Hall as a creepily intense Bill Gates and Joey Slotnick as Steve Wozniak. The real Woz was reportedly so taken by his movie counterpart that he flew to Los Angeles solely to eat lunch with the actor at the airport. “Steve Wozniak made several speeches in which he said that the film accurately portrays how things actually happened,” Burke says. “To me that was better than any awards or nominations the film could get.” Internally, Apple might have been less than pleased at aspects of the portrayal, but the company (and Jobs in particular) handled it brilliantly. Shortly after the film came out, Jobs flew Wyle to New York in secret, where the actor appeared onstage at a Macworld event, coming out at the beginning to impersonate Jobs. “What a move,” Burke says. “Steve Jobs took what could have been a firestorm of criticism against Apple, because of the way he was portrayed in the film, and turned it into a positive. Instantly Apple turned all of the publicity in its favor.” One person Jobs never wanted to speak to was Burke, however. “Steve wanted nothing to do with me,” the director says. “A few years later one of my friends asked me to call Apple to see if I could get Steve Jobs interested in a project involving J.K. Rowling. I was somehow designated as the person who should call Steve, because I had made Pirates of Silicon Valley. I said, ‘I guarantee he will never speak to me.’” Nonetheless, Burke was put through to Jobs’ office and talked to his personal assistant. “As soon as she found out who I was, there was a distinct chill in the air. I immediately called my friend back and said, ‘You’ll never hear from him.’ And they never did.” Pirates of Silicon Valley isn’t available in the U.S. iTunes Store, although you can pick it up in the U.K. store for £10 ($16.17) at this link.

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