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Burckhardt I.,RWTH Aachen | Burckhardt I.,University of Heidelberg | Burckhardt F.,EPIET Alumnus | Van Der Linden M.,RWTH Aachen | And 3 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2010

Pneumococcal meningitis is a subgroup of invasive pneumococcal disease with a case-fatality rate of up to 30% and long-term sequelae in more than 50% of cases in adults in developed countries. We aimed to determine risk factors for this particular form of pneumococcal disease. We conducted a prospective population-based laboratory study of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults in North-Rhine-Westphalia, Germany from February 2001 to August 2006. All isolates underwent serotyping and susceptibility testing at the National Reference Centre for Streptococci in Aachen, Germany. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression. A total of 1043 isolates from bacteraemia and 131 isolates from meningitis were included into the study. Serotype 23F and being female were independent risk factors for pneumococcal meningitis. Being 60 years and serotype 1 were associated with a reduced odds ratio. Season, penicillin and macrolide resistance were not statistically associated with CNS involvement. Copyright © 2010 Cambridge University Press. Source


Imohl M.,RWTH Aachen | Reinert R.R.,RWTH Aachen | Reinert R.R.,Wyeth Vaccines Research | Van Der Linden M.,RWTH Aachen
International Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2010

Nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease has been conducted in Germany since 1992. From 1992 to 2008, a total of 12,137 isolates frominvasive pneumococcal disease were collected. Data on serotypes were available for 9,394 invasive isolates. The leading serotypes were serotypes 14 (16.5%), 3 (8.0%), 7F (7.6%), 1 (7.3%), and 23F (6.0%). Variations in serotype distribution over the years are particularly extensive, especially concerning serotype 14 (min 7.4%, max 33.5%) with the highest percentages among the isolates serotyped from around 1997 to 2006. Serotypes 1 and 7F increased over the last decade. No increase was observed concerning serotype 19A. Higher pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverages were observed among children (7v, 57.3%; 10v, 72.8%; 13v, 83.5%) than among adults (7v, 39.9%; 10v, 55.5%; 13v, 73.5%). The temporal variations in serotype distribution have to be kept in mind when interpreting vaccine coverages reported in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2010 Matthias Imöhl et al. Source


Zhou D.X.M.,Fudan University | Zhou D.X.M.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Chan P.K.S.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Zhang T.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2010

Studies on the association between sequence variability of the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) of hepatitis C virus and the outcome of treatment have reached conflicting results. In this study, 25 patients infected with HCV 6a who had received interferon-alpha/ribavirin combination treatment were analyzed for the sequence variations. 14 of them had the full genome sequences obtained from a previous study, whereas the other 11 samples were sequenced for the extended ISDR (eISDR). This eISDR fragment covers 192. bp (64 amino acids) upstream and 201. bp (67 amino acids) downstream from the ISDR previously defined for HCV 1b. The comparison between interferon-alpha resistance and response groups for the amino acid mutations located in the full genome (6 and 8 patients respectively) as well as the mutations located in the eISDR (10 and 15 patients respectively) showed that the mutations I2160V, I2256V, V2292I (P<0.05) within eISDR were significantly associated with resistance to treatment. However, the extent of amino acid variations within previously defined ISDR was not associated with resistance to treatment as previously reported. Four amino acid variations I248V (P=0.03-0.06) within E1, R445K (P=0.02-0.05) and S747T (P=0.03) within E2, I861V (P=0.01) within NS2 which located outside the eISDR may also associate with treatment outcome as identified by a prescreening of variations within 14 HCV 6a full genomes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Tribble D.R.,Naval Medical Research Center | Tribble D.R.,Bethesda University | Baqar S.,Naval Medical Research Center | Scott D.A.,Naval Medical Research Center | And 15 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2010

A human Campylobacter jejuni infection model provided controlled exposure to assess vaccine efficacy and investigate protective immunity for this important diarrheal pathogen. A well-characterized outbreak strain, C. jejuni 81-176, was investigated using a volunteer experimental infection model to evaluate the dose range and. STV (25% of the subjects were not infected; 3-log-lower maximum excretion level). Systemic and mucosal immune responses were robust in naïve subjects irrespective of the dose or the severity of illness. In contrast, in STV there was a lack of circulating antibody-secreting cells (ASC), reflecting the local mucosal effector responses. LTV exhibited comparable ASC responses to primary infection, and anamnestic fecal IgA responses likely contributed to self-resolving illness prior to antibiotic treatment. Campylobacter antigen-dependent production of gamma interferon by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was strongly associated with protection from illness, supporting the hypothesis that TH1 polarization has a primary role in acquired immunity to C. jejuni. This study revealed a C. jejuni dose-related increase in campylobacteriosis rates, evidence of complete short-term protection that waned with time, and immune response patterns associated with protection. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source


Lum L.C.S.,University of Malaya | Borja-Tabora C.F.,Manila Doctors Hospital | Breiman R.F.,International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research | Vesikari T.,University of Tampere | And 22 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Children aged 11 to <24 months received 2 intranasal doses of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35 ± 7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV + Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively). © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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