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PubMed | Wyeth Nutrition, University of Pretoria, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Doctor Soliman Fakeeh Hospital and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric gastroenterology, hepatology & nutrition | Year: 2015

Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve.


PubMed | Wyeth Nutrition., Nestec SA. and Wyeth Nutrtion.
Type: | Journal: Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2017

Protein separation by SDS-CGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate - Capillary Gel Electrophoresis) followed by UV absorption at 220nm allows quantification of major proteins in raw milk. In processed dairy samples such as skim milk powder and infant formulas, signals from individual proteins are less resolved, but caseins still migrate as one family between two groups of whey proteins. In the first group, -Lactalbumin and -Lactoglobulin migrate as two distinct peaks. Lactosylated adducts show delayed migration times and interfere with peak separation, but both native and modified forms, as well as other low molecular weight whey proteins, still elute before the caseins. The second group contains high molecular weight whey proteins (including BSA, Lactoferrin and Immunoglobulins) and elutes after the caseins. Caseins and whey proteins can thus be considered as two distinct, non-overlapping families whose ratio can be established based on integrated areas without the need for a calibration curve. The mass-to-area response factors for whey proteins and caseins are different, and the distinct area correction factor was determined from experimental measurement using skim milk powder. Method performance assessed on five infant formulas showed RSDs of 0.2-1.2% (within day) and 0.5-1.1% (multiple days), with average recoveries between 97.4 and 106.4% of added whey protein. 43 different infant formulas and milk powders were analyzed. Of the 41 samples with manufacturer claims, the measured whey protein content was in close agreement with the declared values; it fell within 5% of the declared value in 76% of the samples.


Woollard D.C.,New Hill | Bensch A.,New Zealand Laboratory Services | Indyk H.,Fonterra Cooperative Group Ltd | McMahon A.,Wyeth Nutrition
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

An HPLC method is described using normal phase conditions with an unbonded silica column to determine concentrations of supplementary vitamin A and vitamin E esters and β-carotene in infant formulae. The method utilises selective dual-channel fluoresence for vitamins A and E and visible absorbance for β-carotene. An attribute of the method is the use of retinol propionate, α-tocopheryl propionate and all-E-β-apo-8′-carotenoic acid ethyl ester internal standards to compensate for analytical variations associated with these labile vitamins. Extraction is performed without saponification, with the aid of protease to remove vitamin encaspsulation and facilitate vitamin partition into hydrocarbon solvent. Figures of merit indicate the method is suitable for its intended purpose in the highly regulated infant formula environment, including liquid formulations. The method is extendable to whole milk powders where total vitamin A content data can be calculated by summing the innate long-chain vitamin A esters with the added esters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Fonterra Cooperative Group Ltd, Wyeth Nutrition, New Zealand Laboratory Services and New Hill
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

An HPLC method is described using normal phase conditions with an unbonded silica column to determine concentrations of supplementary vitamin A and vitamin E esters and -carotene in infant formulae. The method utilises selective dual-channel fluoresence for vitamins A and E and visible absorbance for -carotene. An attribute of the method is the use of retinol propionate, -tocopheryl propionate and all-E--apo-8-carotenoic acid ethyl ester internal standards to compensate for analytical variations associated with these labile vitamins. Extraction is performed without saponification, with the aid of protease to remove vitamin encaspsulation and facilitate vitamin partition into hydrocarbon solvent. Figures of merit indicate the method is suitable for its intended purpose in the highly regulated infant formula environment, including liquid formulations. The method is extendable to whole milk powders where total vitamin A content data can be calculated by summing the innate long-chain vitamin A esters with the added esters.


Woollard D.C.,New Hill | Macfadzean C.,New Zealand Laboratory Services Ltd. | Indyk H.E.,Fonterra Cooperative Group Ltd. | McMahon A.,Wyeth Nutrition | Christiansen S.,Perrigo Nutritionals PBM Products
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2014

A gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection method was developed to establish the content of myo-inositol in milk powders and infant formulations subsequent to formation of the volatile trialkylsilyl derivative. Samples were prepared by acid digestion, thereby releasing inositol from its multiple bound forms. A digestion time of 4h at 114°C was sufficient to hydrolyse potentially interfering carbohydrates and quantitatively recover bound inositol from milk-based products. Single laboratory method validation showed a within-day relative standard deviation (RSDr) of 5.9% and between-day relative standard deviation (RSDiR) of 9.6%. A between-laboratory (n=7) collaborative study yielded an average reproducibility (RSDR) of 12.8%, considered fit-for-purpose as a quality control method for milk-based infant formulations. Soy-based products, containing significant inositol hexaphosphate (IP6, phytic acid), required 32h for release of all inositol. Although current regulations do not specify the inclusion of IP6 in an inositol measurement, the current method allows for its discrimination if present. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


A method for the calculation of the whey protein fraction was developed for milk-based infant formula products based upon amino acid ratio calculated from asparagine/aspartic acid, alanine, proline, and phenylalanine amino acid data. Historical and literature amino acid data were combined to establish the reference amino acid values used in the validation study. This method has been evaluated for accuracy versus label claim for 12 products, with results from 90 to 107.5% of label claim and an overall average of 98.7%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were determined over 4 different days. Repeatability results were 4. 75, 2. 06, 4.18, and 2.44% RSD, respectively, with an overall intermediate precision of 3.68% RSD. Since the amino acid profile of infant formula finished products depends on the amino acid profile of ingredients used, the applicability of the method needs to be confirmed for specific types of infant formula, for which data will be gathered. Additional reference material data are being gathered for better estimation of milk and whey reference values, which are based on being normalized to total amino acid content, during the two year AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis method approval process.


Reznikov E.A.,Urbana University | Comstock S.S.,Urbana University | Yi C.,Wyeth Nutrition | Contractor N.,Wyeth Nutrition | Donovan S.M.,Urbana University
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Lactoferrin is a bioactive milk protein that stimulates cell proliferation in vitro; however, limited in vivo evidence exists to allow lactoferrin to be incorporated into infant formula. Herein, the effect of dietary bovine lactoferrin (bLF) on neonatal intestinal growth and maturation was investigated guided by the hypothesis that bLF would increase cellular proliferation leading to functional differences in neonatal piglets. Colostrum-deprived piglets were fed formula containing 0.4 [control (Ctrl)], 1.0 (LF1), or 3.6 (LF3) g bLF/L for the first 7 or 14 d of life. To provide passive immunity, sow serum was provided orally during the first 36 h of life. Intestinal cell proliferation, histomorphology, mucosal DNA concentration, enzyme activity, gene expression, and fecal bLF content were measured. Intestinal enzyme activity, DNA concentration, and villus length were unaffected by bLF. However, crypt proliferation was 60% greater in LF1- and LF3-fed piglets than in Ctrl piglets, and crypt depth and area were 20% greater in LF3-fed piglets than in Ctrl piglets. Crypt cells from LF3-fed piglets had 3-fold higher β-catenin mRNA expression than did crypt cells from Ctrl piglets. Last, feces of piglets fed bLF contained intact bLF, suggesting that some bLF was resistant to digestion and could potentially affect intestinal proliferation through direct interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary bLF stimulates crypt cell proliferation in vivo. The increased β-catenin expression indicates that Wnt signaling may in part mediate the stimulatory effect of bLF on intestinal cell proliferation. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.


Coker R.H.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Coker R.H.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Hays N.P.,Wyeth Nutrition | Williams R.H.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Context. The exact relationship between the bed rest-induced loss of skeletal muscle and reductions in muscle strength and physical performance in the older individuals is still unclear. Objective. We examined the effect of 10 days of bed rest on changes in regional body composition, muscle strength, and functional status, and the relationship between these variables in older individuals. Design, Participants, and Intervention. Regional body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We also determined changes in leg strength and several indices of functional status, including walking speed. Results. Body weight, body mass index, and total and lower extremity lean mass decreased with bed rest. There were also significant reductions in knee extension one repetition maximum, isometric knee extension, knee extension 60° concentric, stair ascent time, stair ascent power, stair descent time, VO2 max, floor transfer test, 5-minute walk time, and chair stand. The overall change in total and lower extremity lean mass was also directly related to bed rest-induced reductions in one repetition maximum knee extension. Conclusions. Bed rest promoted overall declines in muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical function in older individuals. The changes in lean tissue were closely correlated with the bed rest-induced decline of muscle strength. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


PubMed | University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Wyeth Nutrition and Kinemed Inc.
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences | Year: 2014

The exact relationship between the bed rest-induced loss of skeletal muscle and reductions in muscle strength and physical performance in the older individuals is still unclear.We examined the effect of 10 days of bed rest on changes in regional body composition, muscle strength, and functional status, and the relationship between these variables in older individuals.Regional body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We also determined changes in leg strength and several indices of functional status, including walking speed.Body weight, body mass index, and total and lower extremity lean mass decreased with bed rest. There were also significant reductions in knee extension one repetition maximum, isometric knee extension, knee extension 60 concentric, stair ascent time, stair ascent power, stair descent time, VO2 max, floor transfer test, 5-minute walk time, and chair stand. The overall change in total and lower extremity lean mass was also directly related to bed rest-induced reductions in one repetition maximum knee extension.Bed rest promoted overall declines in muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical function in older individuals. The changes in lean tissue were closely correlated with the bed rest-induced decline of muscle strength.


PubMed | Pfizer and Wyeth Nutrition
Type: | Journal: Food & nutrition research | Year: 2016

Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity.Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (30 days) human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis.Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30-188 days postpartum) from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids.Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD]) ranged from 1,133 (125.5) to 1,366 (341.4) mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD) was 1,192 (200.9) mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids) did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation.Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support the validity and broad application of these findings.

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