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Green R.J.,University of Pretoria | Samy G.,Ain Shams University | Miqdady M.S.,Sheikh Khalifa Medical City | Salah M.,Wyeth Nutrition | And 7 more authors.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition | Year: 2015

Eating behaviour disorder during early childhood is a common pediatric problem. Many terminologies have been used interchangeably to describe this condition, hindering implementation of therapy and confusing a common problem. The definition suggests an eating behaviour which has consequences for family harmony and growth. The recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not cover the entire spectrum seen by pediatricians. Publications are substantive but level of evidence is most of the time low. This purpose of this review is to clarify terminology of eating behaviour problems during early childhood; including benign picky eating, limited diets, sensory food aversion, selective eating, food avoidance emotional disorder, pervasive refusal syndrome, tactile defensiveness, functional dysphagia, neophobia and toddler anorexia. This tool is proposed only to ease the clinical management for child care providers. Diagnostic criteria are set and management tools are suggested. The role of dietary counselling and, where necessary, behavioural therapy is clarified. It is hoped that the condition will make its way into mainstream pediatrics to allow these children, and their families, to receive the help they deserve. © 2014 by The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition.

A method for the calculation of the whey protein fraction was developed for milk-based infant formula products based upon amino acid ratio calculated from asparagine/aspartic acid, alanine, proline, and phenylalanine amino acid data. Historical and literature amino acid data were combined to establish the reference amino acid values used in the validation study. This method has been evaluated for accuracy versus label claim for 12 products, with results from 90 to 107.5% of label claim and an overall average of 98.7%. Repeatability and intermediate precision were determined over 4 different days. Repeatability results were 4. 75, 2. 06, 4.18, and 2.44% RSD, respectively, with an overall intermediate precision of 3.68% RSD. Since the amino acid profile of infant formula finished products depends on the amino acid profile of ingredients used, the applicability of the method needs to be confirmed for specific types of infant formula, for which data will be gathered. Additional reference material data are being gathered for better estimation of milk and whey reference values, which are based on being normalized to total amino acid content, during the two year AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Methods of Analysis method approval process.

Woollard D.C.,New Hill | Bensch A.,New Zealand Laboratory Services | Indyk H.,Fonterra Cooperative Group Ltd | McMahon A.,Wyeth Nutrition
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

An HPLC method is described using normal phase conditions with an unbonded silica column to determine concentrations of supplementary vitamin A and vitamin E esters and β-carotene in infant formulae. The method utilises selective dual-channel fluoresence for vitamins A and E and visible absorbance for β-carotene. An attribute of the method is the use of retinol propionate, α-tocopheryl propionate and all-E-β-apo-8′-carotenoic acid ethyl ester internal standards to compensate for analytical variations associated with these labile vitamins. Extraction is performed without saponification, with the aid of protease to remove vitamin encaspsulation and facilitate vitamin partition into hydrocarbon solvent. Figures of merit indicate the method is suitable for its intended purpose in the highly regulated infant formula environment, including liquid formulations. The method is extendable to whole milk powders where total vitamin A content data can be calculated by summing the innate long-chain vitamin A esters with the added esters. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Woollard D.C.,New Hill | Macfadzean C.,New Zealand Laboratory Services Ltd | Indyk H.E.,Fonterra Cooperative Group Ltd | McMahon A.,Wyeth Nutrition | Christiansen S.,Perrigo Nutritionals PBM Products
International Dairy Journal | Year: 2014

A gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection method was developed to establish the content of myo-inositol in milk powders and infant formulations subsequent to formation of the volatile trialkylsilyl derivative. Samples were prepared by acid digestion, thereby releasing inositol from its multiple bound forms. A digestion time of 4h at 114°C was sufficient to hydrolyse potentially interfering carbohydrates and quantitatively recover bound inositol from milk-based products. Single laboratory method validation showed a within-day relative standard deviation (RSDr) of 5.9% and between-day relative standard deviation (RSDiR) of 9.6%. A between-laboratory (n=7) collaborative study yielded an average reproducibility (RSDR) of 12.8%, considered fit-for-purpose as a quality control method for milk-based infant formulations. Soy-based products, containing significant inositol hexaphosphate (IP6, phytic acid), required 32h for release of all inositol. Although current regulations do not specify the inclusion of IP6 in an inositol measurement, the current method allows for its discrimination if present. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Coker R.H.,University of Alaska Fairbanks | Coker R.H.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | Hays N.P.,Wyeth Nutrition | Williams R.H.,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences | Year: 2015

Context. The exact relationship between the bed rest-induced loss of skeletal muscle and reductions in muscle strength and physical performance in the older individuals is still unclear. Objective. We examined the effect of 10 days of bed rest on changes in regional body composition, muscle strength, and functional status, and the relationship between these variables in older individuals. Design, Participants, and Intervention. Regional body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We also determined changes in leg strength and several indices of functional status, including walking speed. Results. Body weight, body mass index, and total and lower extremity lean mass decreased with bed rest. There were also significant reductions in knee extension one repetition maximum, isometric knee extension, knee extension 60° concentric, stair ascent time, stair ascent power, stair descent time, VO2 max, floor transfer test, 5-minute walk time, and chair stand. The overall change in total and lower extremity lean mass was also directly related to bed rest-induced reductions in one repetition maximum knee extension. Conclusions. Bed rest promoted overall declines in muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical function in older individuals. The changes in lean tissue were closely correlated with the bed rest-induced decline of muscle strength. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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