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The aim of this study was the evaluation of selected vitamins in the decade menus collected from five kindergartens in Warsaw and regions. The evaluation was done for 10 days menus of spring period Results shown the planned pre-school nutrition was not balanced properly related to too much amount of vitamin A, E, vitamin B and niacin and too little vitamin D and folate.


The aim of this study was the evaluation of energy and selected nutrients content in 10 days menus (spring period) from 5 kindergartens situated in mazowiecki district. The kindergartens were located in Zyrardów, Dziekanów, Warsaw, Lomianki and Nowa Iwiczna. It was shown that amount of energy and macronutrients was unproper. Most of the food rations contained too much energy, from fat and protein, and too little from carbohydrates. Planned pre-school nutrition was not balanced properly in the meaning of energy and nutrients amount.


The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.


Taking into account the negative impact of stimulants, including alcohol, nicotine and excessive consumption of caffeine on the baby and his mother, a very important is to stop or to restrict their use, especially during pregnancy and lactation. Purpose of the study was to evaluate alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, tobacco smoke exposure and caffeine consumption in breastfeeding women from Masovian Province. The survey was conducted from September 2010 till March 2011. The study group consisted of 102 breastfeeding women aged 19-38 years. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke was obtained by questionnaire interview. The results about caffeine intake were obtained using 3-day dietary records method and food frequency questionnaire method. Source of information about the caffeine content in products were the published literature, in the case of energy drinks the manufacturer's label. Among all women surveyed (n = 102), up 17% of respondents declared alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking of 6% and 15% of passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The average caffeine consumption in a group called "caffeine consumers" (n = 94) was 127.4 +/- 76.0 mg/person/day for 3-day dietary records method and 163.4 +/- 100.6 mg/person/day for the food frequency questionnaire method. The correlation coefficient between the used methods was r = 0.71 (p < 0.001). The main sources of caffeine, regardless of the method of data collection were: black tea, which provided about 60% of caffeine and ground coffee (about 20%) and instant coffee (about 13%). Despite general knowledge about the harmful effects of smoking cigarette/tobacco smoke exposure and the consumption of alcohol and foods high in caffeine, some respondents did not halt the use of these stimulants during lactation, indicating a need for an education in this field.


Wawrzyniak A.,Wydzial Nauk o Zywieniu Czlowieka i Konsumpcji
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2011

The main purpose of this work was the analysis of the composition of fatty acids and cholesterol. The investigation was done among 143 students, with 3-day dietary records method. The research was carried out in the years 2007 and 2008. The average fat intake was 92.7% of RDA. The intakes of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 99.4%, 71.2% and 73.3% of recommended levels, respectively. The average intake of cholesterol was in accordance with recommended value 300 mg (91.00%). Intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol depended on gender Intake offat, saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids depended on state of health additionally. Intake of saturated fatty acids was different according to place of dwelling. In case of men too much energy from fat (37.9%) was recorded and too much intake of cholesterol (about 58%).


Carotenoids as biologically active compounds, found in products of plant origin, have a beneficial impact on human health by protecting it against the development of many diseases. People and animals do not have the ability to synthesize these compounds de novo, they must be regularly supplied with food. The aim of this study was to evaluate intake of selected carotenoids and indicate their main sources in the daily food ration in adults. The study was conducted in autumn and spring season, in 2010-2011, among 512 adults, aged 18-97 years, from the urban environment of the central Poland. Food frequency questionnaire method was used to assess the intake of carotenoids. The mean intake of beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein was respectively 6.3; 7.0 and 2.7 mg/person/day. Level of education was a factor which significantly influenced on all carotenoids intake. Persons with higher level of education consumed significantly higher amounts of carotenoids in relation to persons with primary level of education. It was also found statistically significantly higher beta-carotene intake by women when compared to men. Persons with evidence of overweight or obesity consumed significantly more lycopene. The main sources of beta-carotene were fresh vegetables (62%), including carrot (37%). The largest amounts of lycopene came from processed tomato (50%) and fresh tomatoes (32%). Sources of lutein were total vegetables which contributed to diet over 80%, including fresh vegetables (55%). The main source of carotenoids in the diet of Polish adults were vegetables and their products, and the level of education was the most differentiating factor in the their total intake.


Abdominal obesity is the main component of the metabolic syndrome. Hyperplasia of visceral adipose tissue leads to numerous metabolic disorders: hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance. This clustering of the most hazardous risk factors is directly linked to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The aim of presented trial was to evaluate the use of low-caloric diet (1200-1500 kcal/day) with modified fatty acids pool in dietetic therapy of the metabolic syndrome and additionally to estimate the total risk of various cardiovascular disease outcomes. 23 obese patients aged 22-65 years: 14 men (44.0 +/- 10.9 years) and 9 women (49.7 +/- 11.3 years) with metabolic syndrome (according to NCEP ATPIII) were randomly divided into 2 groups: examined (II) and control (I) with PUFA n-3/n-6 ratio 1:5 and 1:10 respectively. There were no difference in diet composition between groups. Dietary fiber intake was over 29 g/day and both diets provide 28% of total energy from fats, 53% from carbohydrates and 18% from proteins, with < 200 mg cholesterol/day. Anthropometric (body mass, waist and hip circumference) and biochemical (plasma concentration of: glucose, triglicerydes, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol) indicators, body composition and the value of blood pressure were controlled. After 12 weeks trial there was significant decrease in measured parameters noted: body mass (8.2 +/- 1.6 kg; p < 0.001), waist circumference (13.4 +/- 2.4 cm; p < 0.001), systolic and diastolic blood pressure: 11.5 +/- 2.2 mmHg and 7.1 +/- 09 mmHg; (p = 0.0003 i p = 0.0008) respectively. The reduction in total risk of developing coronary heart disease measured by Framingham risk score and SCORE algorithm was observed. There was no statistically significant difference between the effects of both groups: PUFA n-3/n-6 1:5 and 1:10. . These results suggest that the individually matched low-caloric diet with decreased saturated fats intake, increased intake of PUFA n-3 and dietary fibers are crucial in metabolic syndrome therapy and efficiently decrease total cardiovascular risk in these patients.


PubMed | Wydzial Nauk o Zywieniu Czlowieka i Konsumpcji
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny | Year: 2012

Abdominal obesity is the main component of the metabolic syndrome. Hyperplasia of visceral adipose tissue leads to numerous metabolic disorders: hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance. This clustering of the most hazardous risk factors is directly linked to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.The aim of presented trial was to evaluate the use of low-caloric diet (1200-1500 kcal/day) with modified fatty acids pool in dietetic therapy of the metabolic syndrome and additionally to estimate the total risk of various cardiovascular disease outcomes.23 obese patients aged 22-65 years: 14 men (44.0 +/- 10.9 years) and 9 women (49.7 +/- 11.3 years) with metabolic syndrome (according to NCEP ATPIII) were randomly divided into 2 groups: examined (II) and control (I) with PUFA n-3/n-6 ratio 1:5 and 1:10 respectively. There were no difference in diet composition between groups. Dietary fiber intake was over 29 g/day and both diets provide 28% of total energy from fats, 53% from carbohydrates and 18% from proteins, with < 200 mg cholesterol/day. Anthropometric (body mass, waist and hip circumference) and biochemical (plasma concentration of: glucose, triglicerydes, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol) indicators, body composition and the value of blood pressure were controlled.After 12 weeks trial there was significant decrease in measured parameters noted: body mass (8.2 +/- 1.6 kg; p < 0.001), waist circumference (13.4 +/- 2.4 cm; p < 0.001), systolic and diastolic blood pressure: 11.5 +/- 2.2 mmHg and 7.1 +/- 09 mmHg; (p = 0.0003 i p = 0.0008) respectively. The reduction in total risk of developing coronary heart disease measured by Framingham risk score and SCORE algorithm was observed. There was no statistically significant difference between the effects of both groups: PUFA n-3/n-6 1:5 and 1:10.. These results suggest that the individually matched low-caloric diet with decreased saturated fats intake, increased intake of PUFA n-3 and dietary fibers are crucial in metabolic syndrome therapy and efficiently decrease total cardiovascular risk in these patients.


PubMed | Wydzial Nauk o Zywieniu Czlowieka i Konsumpcji
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny | Year: 2012

Taking into account the negative impact of stimulants, including alcohol, nicotine and excessive consumption of caffeine on the baby and his mother, a very important is to stop or to restrict their use, especially during pregnancy and lactation.Purpose of the study was to evaluate alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, tobacco smoke exposure and caffeine consumption in breastfeeding women from Masovian Province.The survey was conducted from September 2010 till March 2011. The study group consisted of 102 breastfeeding women aged 19-38 years. Information on alcohol consumption, smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke was obtained by questionnaire interview. The results about caffeine intake were obtained using 3-day dietary records method and food frequency questionnaire method. Source of information about the caffeine content in products were the published literature, in the case of energy drinks the manufacturers label.Among all women surveyed (n = 102), up 17% of respondents declared alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking of 6% and 15% of passive exposure to tobacco smoke. The average caffeine consumption in a group called caffeine consumers (n = 94) was 127.4 +/- 76.0 mg/person/day for 3-day dietary records method and 163.4 +/- 100.6 mg/person/day for the food frequency questionnaire method. The correlation coefficient between the used methods was r = 0.71 (p < 0.001). The main sources of caffeine, regardless of the method of data collection were: black tea, which provided about 60% of caffeine and ground coffee (about 20%) and instant coffee (about 13%).Despite general knowledge about the harmful effects of smoking cigarette/tobacco smoke exposure and the consumption of alcohol and foods high in caffeine, some respondents did not halt the use of these stimulants during lactation, indicating a need for an education in this field.


PubMed | Wydzial Nauk o Zywieniu Czlowieka i Konsumpcji
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny | Year: 2012

Carotenoids as biologically active compounds, found in products of plant origin, have a beneficial impact on human health by protecting it against the development of many diseases. People and animals do not have the ability to synthesize these compounds de novo, they must be regularly supplied with food.The aim of this study was to evaluate intake of selected carotenoids and indicate their main sources in the daily food ration in adults.The study was conducted in autumn and spring season, in 2010-2011, among 512 adults, aged 18-97 years, from the urban environment of the central Poland. Food frequency questionnaire method was used to assess the intake of carotenoids.The mean intake of beta-carotene, lycopene and lutein was respectively 6.3; 7.0 and 2.7 mg/person/day. Level of education was a factor which significantly influenced on all carotenoids intake. Persons with higher level of education consumed significantly higher amounts of carotenoids in relation to persons with primary level of education. It was also found statistically significantly higher beta-carotene intake by women when compared to men. Persons with evidence of overweight or obesity consumed significantly more lycopene. The main sources of beta-carotene were fresh vegetables (62%), including carrot (37%). The largest amounts of lycopene came from processed tomato (50%) and fresh tomatoes (32%). Sources of lutein were total vegetables which contributed to diet over 80%, including fresh vegetables (55%).The main source of carotenoids in the diet of Polish adults were vegetables and their products, and the level of education was the most differentiating factor in the their total intake.

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