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Kraków, Poland

In climate research it is frequent to search for the difference in precipitation in different circumstances. However, because of high skewness of the probability distributions of the daily precipitation the standard statistical procedures, which assume normality are inappropriate here. Two approaches to the problem are considered, the application of Box-Cox transform to get normal distribution, and application of the standard distribution- independent tests. Namely the Wald-Wolfowitz, Mann-Whitney U, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests are considered to be especially useful. The algorithms for all tests are given to perform them in the standard MS Excel spreadsheet (practically independent on the program version, with no use of Visual Basic). Source

The paper presents a comparison of 3 sets of interpretations of 1 classical Landsat MSS image done by 15 interpreters on 3 different scales, varying by a factor of 2 (i.e. 1.2M, 1M and 500K). The number, length, and average length of interpreted lineaments strongly depend on the scale of imagery, but not in a simple, linear way. Even directions of interpreted lineaments are to some degree controlled by scale factor, so to obtain a coherent interpretation it is recommended to interpret all image areas on a fixed scale Interpretations in different scales may be combined into one multi-coverage interpretation. Source

Wyszomirski P.,Wydzial Inzynierii Materialowej i Ceramiki AGH | Muszynski M.,Wydzial Geologii | Zawrzykraj W.,Ceradbud
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2010

The ceramic clays occurring in the Szkucin deposit are of Upper Triassic age. They are developed as red-brownish clays, loams and inferiorly muds with lenses of grey-green muds. An average thickness of these sediments in the deposit is about 8 m, whereas that of the Quaternary overburden does not exceed 1 m. The phase composition of the clays studied is similar. The clayeymaterial is composedmainly of amore or less homogenous mixture of clay substance containing minor amounts of detrital components and finely dispersed hematite pelite that colours the clay material in red. Clay minerals are represented mostly by illite and kaolinite. The presence of minor admixtures of 14 Å clay minerals (probably vermiculite and/or mixed-layered vermiculite/ chlorite and chlorite/smectite) is characteristic. Beside clay minerals, the list of components includes quartz and hematite, accompanied by minor and variable amounts of micas, feldspars (both plagioclases and K-feldspars) and, sometimes, calcite. On the basis of detailed chemical and mineralogical investigations, the authors have delineated within the deposit its part without calcite, i.e., representing the material with the best properties from the point of view of the requirements of the ceramic industry. Fast firing in the range 1110-1140°C indicates that the raw material is suitable for manufacturing the monoporosa wall tiles, whereas after the firing in the range 1150-1180°C it can be used in manufacturing the monocottura stoneware floor tiles. Thus, the red, non-calcareous clays from Szkucin meet the requirements of the mineral raw material applicable in the ceramic industry, particularly in manufacturing various types of tiles. Source

Chelminski J.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny | Nowacki L.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny | Papiernik B.,Wydzial Geologii | Tomaszczyk M.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2010

Selection of geological formations and structures for safe underground storage of CO2 as well as development of a site monitoring program required construction of a database and creation of a model of geological structures that are potential reservoirs of CO2. Archive and newly interpreted data were input into a database suitable for the requirements of the 3D modelling software. The database resources allowed a construction of static, 3D models composed of the following: - structural model - created based on nine seismic sections in time domain; five horizons, corresponding with tops of Toarcian, Pliensbachian, Sinemurian, Keuper and Muschelkalk were built as well as surfaces of four faults located in the southern part of the region. The horizons and faults were constructed by applying the DSI algorithm; - stratigraphic model - contains five stratigraphic sequences: upper Toarcian, lower Toarcian, Pliensbachian, Hettangian-Sinemurian, Rhaetian - divided into a variable number of proportional layers; - litological model - created based on litological curves in the Budziszewice IG 1, Buków 1 and Zaosie 2 boreholes; sequentional stochastic algorythm called "Sequential Indicator Stimulation" has been used to construct it; - 3D model of reservoir parameters distribution - stochastic conditional estimation technique "Sequential Gaussian Simulation" and its modification "Gaussian Random Function Simulation", adapted to fast calculation of large 3D models, were applied for the development of the volume of shale model (VSH) and effective porosity (Pe) model. Methodology of the construction of static 3D models developed by the team connects digital computation tasks with the knowledge of usage of the 3D modelling software. Experience gained during the work upon the informatics system and construction of the 3D model of the Budziszewice structure will greatly aid further potential CO2 storage site selection and appraisal. Source

Pieczonka J.,Wydzial Geologii | Gluszek A.,KGHM Polska Miedz S.A.
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2010

The paper discusses spatial distribution of ore minerals within the Lubin-Sieroszowice copper deposit in the Kupferschiefer horizon. Maps of the distribution of the chalcocite group of sulphides, bornite, chalcopyrite, covellite, tennantite, galena, sphalerite and Fe sulphides were constructed based on 2500 analyses of chip samples. In order to show a spatial distribution of major ore minerals, the Surfer 9.0 program was applied. Values of parameters in the square grid were calculated using the point kriging method. Analysis of ore minerals distribution shows that the chalcocite group of minerals predominates in the deposit. The richest chalcocite zone occurs in the central part of the deposit. In its eastern part, several ore minerals, especially bornite and chalcopyrite, prevail locally over the other sulphides. A redox barrier is a key in understanding the spatial distribution of ore minerals in the deposit. Source

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