Kraków, Poland
Kraków, Poland

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Chelminski J.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny | Nowacki L.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny | Papiernik B.,Wydzial Geologii | Tomaszczyk M.,Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2010

Selection of geological formations and structures for safe underground storage of CO2 as well as development of a site monitoring program required construction of a database and creation of a model of geological structures that are potential reservoirs of CO2. Archive and newly interpreted data were input into a database suitable for the requirements of the 3D modelling software. The database resources allowed a construction of static, 3D models composed of the following: - structural model - created based on nine seismic sections in time domain; five horizons, corresponding with tops of Toarcian, Pliensbachian, Sinemurian, Keuper and Muschelkalk were built as well as surfaces of four faults located in the southern part of the region. The horizons and faults were constructed by applying the DSI algorithm; - stratigraphic model - contains five stratigraphic sequences: upper Toarcian, lower Toarcian, Pliensbachian, Hettangian-Sinemurian, Rhaetian - divided into a variable number of proportional layers; - litological model - created based on litological curves in the Budziszewice IG 1, Buków 1 and Zaosie 2 boreholes; sequentional stochastic algorythm called "Sequential Indicator Stimulation" has been used to construct it; - 3D model of reservoir parameters distribution - stochastic conditional estimation technique "Sequential Gaussian Simulation" and its modification "Gaussian Random Function Simulation", adapted to fast calculation of large 3D models, were applied for the development of the volume of shale model (VSH) and effective porosity (Pe) model. Methodology of the construction of static 3D models developed by the team connects digital computation tasks with the knowledge of usage of the 3D modelling software. Experience gained during the work upon the informatics system and construction of the 3D model of the Budziszewice structure will greatly aid further potential CO2 storage site selection and appraisal.

Pieczonka J.,Wydzial Geologii | Gluszek A.,KGHM Polska Miedz S.A
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2010

The paper discusses spatial distribution of ore minerals within the Lubin-Sieroszowice copper deposit in the Kupferschiefer horizon. Maps of the distribution of the chalcocite group of sulphides, bornite, chalcopyrite, covellite, tennantite, galena, sphalerite and Fe sulphides were constructed based on 2500 analyses of chip samples. In order to show a spatial distribution of major ore minerals, the Surfer 9.0 program was applied. Values of parameters in the square grid were calculated using the point kriging method. Analysis of ore minerals distribution shows that the chalcocite group of minerals predominates in the deposit. The richest chalcocite zone occurs in the central part of the deposit. In its eastern part, several ore minerals, especially bornite and chalcopyrite, prevail locally over the other sulphides. A redox barrier is a key in understanding the spatial distribution of ore minerals in the deposit.

Heflik W.,Wydzial Geologii | Natkaniec-Nowak L.,Wydzial Geologii | Zagozdzon P.P.,Wydzial Geoinzynierii | Zagozdzon K.D.,Wydzial Geoinzynierii | And 2 more authors.
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2016

Hornfels from the closed “Wolność” mine (Kowary, the Lower Silesia) are recognized as thermally metamorphosed rocks belonging to hornblende-hornfels facies or locally a facies of pyroxene hornfels. Their texture reveal the traces of some deformations such as folding or fractures. Their protholit is described as a pelitic deposit enriched with clay minerals. The sediment was altered into meta-pelities-aleurites after the diagenesis, and later the rock was intensely thermally metamorphosed at the contact with the intrusion of the Karkonosze granitoid. Three varieties are distinguished based on their colour: green, grey and black. Green and black colours result from the predominance of hornblende and biotite over other rock components, respectively. Whereas grey hornfels are composed of similar amounts of both mafic minerals: biotite and hornblende. Quartz, mica minerals (biotite and muscovite), amphibole, (hornblende), acid plagioclase and andalusite, epidote group (clinozoisite), orthoclase and pyroxene make up hornfels components. Locally, andalusite is accompanied by sillimianite, which indicates a higher degree of contact metamorphism alterations. Three generations of minerals are distinguished in the rocks: allogenic (I), metamorphic (II) and hydrothermal (III). The allogenic phases are represented by heavy minerals such as zircon, apatite and monazite, which are characteristic of the protholit. The main components of the rocks (e.g. quartz, hornblende, feldspars, andalusite, sillimanite, mica minerals) belong to metamorphic minerals. Chalcopyrite, pyrite and fluorite are surely hydrothermally originated phases. Granitoides found at the contact zone with hornfels indicate traces of metasomatic alteration as a result of endomorphism in this region. © 2016 Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi Mineral Resources Management. All rights reserved.

In climate research it is frequent to search for the difference in precipitation in different circumstances. However, because of high skewness of the probability distributions of the daily precipitation the standard statistical procedures, which assume normality are inappropriate here. Two approaches to the problem are considered, the application of Box-Cox transform to get normal distribution, and application of the standard distribution- independent tests. Namely the Wald-Wolfowitz, Mann-Whitney U, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests are considered to be especially useful. The algorithms for all tests are given to perform them in the standard MS Excel spreadsheet (practically independent on the program version, with no use of Visual Basic).

The article presents the results of a preliminary risk analysis of the spatial geological structural model (3D) of the Zaosie Anticline. They are illustrated by the example of structural uncertainty analysis of the top surface of the Ciechocinek Beds - a potential seal of the Lower Jurassic CCS system. The article focuses on methodological aspects of uncertainty modelling, however, the results obtained have practical importance for improving the safety and enhance the credibility of the geometry of the potential storage structure model. They show that it is necessary to introduce additional input data for unambiguous assessment of the amplitude and geometry of the anticline closure.

The paper presents a comparison of 3 sets of interpretations of 1 classical Landsat MSS image done by 15 interpreters on 3 different scales, varying by a factor of 2 (i.e. 1.2M, 1M and 500K). The number, length, and average length of interpreted lineaments strongly depend on the scale of imagery, but not in a simple, linear way. Even directions of interpreted lineaments are to some degree controlled by scale factor, so to obtain a coherent interpretation it is recommended to interpret all image areas on a fixed scale Interpretations in different scales may be combined into one multi-coverage interpretation.

Wyszomirski P.,Wydzial Inzynierii Materialowej i Ceramiki AGH | Muszynski M.,Wydzial Geologii | Zawrzykraj W.,Ceradbud
Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi / Mineral Resources Management | Year: 2010

The ceramic clays occurring in the Szkucin deposit are of Upper Triassic age. They are developed as red-brownish clays, loams and inferiorly muds with lenses of grey-green muds. An average thickness of these sediments in the deposit is about 8 m, whereas that of the Quaternary overburden does not exceed 1 m. The phase composition of the clays studied is similar. The clayeymaterial is composedmainly of amore or less homogenous mixture of clay substance containing minor amounts of detrital components and finely dispersed hematite pelite that colours the clay material in red. Clay minerals are represented mostly by illite and kaolinite. The presence of minor admixtures of 14 Å clay minerals (probably vermiculite and/or mixed-layered vermiculite/ chlorite and chlorite/smectite) is characteristic. Beside clay minerals, the list of components includes quartz and hematite, accompanied by minor and variable amounts of micas, feldspars (both plagioclases and K-feldspars) and, sometimes, calcite. On the basis of detailed chemical and mineralogical investigations, the authors have delineated within the deposit its part without calcite, i.e., representing the material with the best properties from the point of view of the requirements of the ceramic industry. Fast firing in the range 1110-1140°C indicates that the raw material is suitable for manufacturing the monoporosa wall tiles, whereas after the firing in the range 1150-1180°C it can be used in manufacturing the monocottura stoneware floor tiles. Thus, the red, non-calcareous clays from Szkucin meet the requirements of the mineral raw material applicable in the ceramic industry, particularly in manufacturing various types of tiles.

The comprehensive analysis of mineral resources was made in 44 Polish spa containing communes. Mining exploatation and protection of mineral resources result in the restrictions of land use. Land use development is constrained by the extent of mining areas formed to protect the deposit of medicine waters as well as the health resort conservation areas. Deposits of other minerals constitute a reserve for local development and mining industry. Their area should also be protected from durably constructions. However, the majority of the deposits are situated in the law protected areas or foreseen for build-up. For that reason these deposits cannot be mined in open pits. Indicators of depletion of mineral resources and the shares of mining areas (for therapeutic and others minerals) in the total commune area were suggested aimed formaking local planning documentsmore realistic. The indicators were calculated for each group of minerals. At the end of 2007 the exploited resources of 72 therapeutic water deposits amounted to 1825.17 m3/h, 38,5% of them being thermal. Depletion ratio fluctuated from 0 (in actually unexploited deposits: Ustka and Kamieñ Pomorski) to above 90% (Długopole Zdŕj, Polanica Zdŕj and Szczawno Zdŕj). Share of therapeutic water mining areas in the total commune area, fluctuated from 0.01 in Sopot to 90% in Świeradów Zdŕj, Muszyna and 100% in Ciechocinek, Kołobrzeg and Duszniki Zdŕj. Therapeutic peat resources totalled 7.171 million m3. Depletion ratio of peat was below 1% in each spa. Share of mining area of peat deposits in total area commune was below 10%. Discussed communes constrained also 71 documented deposits of not therapeutic nature. These are: 4 fossil fuels, 1 chemical 62 common rocks and 4 peat deposits. In 2007 only 31 such deposits were exploited. The values of the indicators obtained here could help in decision making in land use and economic development planning. Periodic actualization of these indicators is justified. The information on local mineral resources is essential in land use planning and implementation of specific investment. This information consists of: the amount of mineral resources (especially therapeutic water), actual output, ratio of output to resources (or/and reserves) in developed deposits, and information about resources in undeveloped deposits as well as in prognostic and perspective areas.These data allow to determine the resources which are real to use in future. Multidisciplinary surveys indicate restrictions in development planning which are connected with appropriate land use. Protection of deposit areas against buildup the surface appears especially important. Restrictions of land usemanagement in communes where spas are located, depend on: the type and the amount of therapeutic resources and other minerals, geological conditions which protect therapeutic aquifer, actual land cover and land use, and categories of protected areas.

Gorecki J.,Wydzial Geologii | Sermet E.,Wydzial Geologii
Biuletyn - Panstwowego Instytutu Geologicznego | Year: 2010

The main goal of the European NATURA 2000 network of protected areas is the conservation of biodiversity of Europe. In total, 141 Special Protection Areas SPAs (created under the Birds Directive), as well as 823 Special Areas of Conservation SACs (created under the Habitats Directive) were in existence in Poland by the end of 2009. They make up 15.6% and 11.0% of the territory of Poland, respectively. There are hundreds of mineral deposits in these areas, both exploited and unexploited, but taken in regard to possible use in the future. Exploitation use of deposits are not completely restricted in NATURA 2000 network areas, but management of the geological environment is made more difficult. Multi-faceted in-depth reports on the environmental influence are made compulsory, as well as a change in the technological methods of exploitation which must compensate for any eventual loss caused in the natural environment. The procedures in place which govern decisions made by formal bodies are complicated and often cause the delay of mineral deposit management. Many deposits, which are of interest to national mineral raw materials supply security, should not have been included in the NATURA 2000 areas, as the opinions of over-exploitation and possible negative environmental impacts caused by mining were blown out of proportion.

Malacological researches was conducted in an outcrop of calcareous tufa and loess diluvium found in Pinczow, in the Nida Basin. Rich and varied mollusc assemblages were described in detail. The species composition and structure indicates changes in the sedimentary environment during the late Holocene. Calcareous tufa accumulated in a small reservoir formed at the back of travertine dam. The uppermost part of the profile composed of loess diluvium, point out to the development of slope processes induced by human agricultural activity. This sediment accumulated in the Middle Ages as determined from radiocarbon dating and numerous findings of pottery. The sussession of the faunal assemblages enables to define the major phases of changes in the sedimentary environment, determine the human impact on the sedimentation and describe the malacofauna diversity. The tufa profile from Pinczow can serve as a model section presenting the carbonate sedimentation process in small lakes and anthropogenic environmental changes. © Copyright by Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny 2013.

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