Dygico M.,WWF Philippines |
Songco A.,Tubbataha Management Office |
White A.T.,Asia Pacific Program |
Marine Policy | Year: 2013
The dynamic institutional arrangements, which characterized the past two decades of management in the Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park (TRNP), reflect flexibility and diversity in the use of governance incentives. At the initial stage, legal and knowledge incentives provided the main guidance in identifying the appropriate organizational structure to manage the Park and to establish its boundaries and jurisdictional limits. Knowledge incentives provided the added value of generating credible information that showed the significance of the Tubbataha Reefs and the positive impact of management actions. Communicating information to the public, as an interpretative incentive, supported greater recognition and influence at the national and international levels. During the middle stage, the use of economic incentives ensured that the Park management benefitted from tourism through user fees and that Cagayancillo Municipality received a fair share of benefits to partly compensate foregone income opportunities. The Tubbataha Trust Fund was created serving as a depository of revenue from grants and donations and included instituting fiscal management to encourage more partners and stakeholders to contribute. Presently, in the light of current issues and the recently passed TRNP Act, striking a balance between legal-economic-participative incentives takes precedence over interpretative and knowledge incentives which are in place and only need to be maintained. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Last P.R.,CSIRO |
Gaudiano J.P.,WWF Philippines
Zootaxa | Year: 2011
A second nominal species of the pseudotriakid genus Gollum, otherwise known as false catsharks or gollumsharks, is de-scribed on the basis of seven specimens collected from the Sulu Sea. Gollum suluensis sp. nov., was discovered at the Puer-to Princesa fish market in Palawan during a project initiated by the World Wildlife Fund during the 1990s to investigate elasmobranch biodiversity in the Philippines. The genus Gollum is presently represented by a single nominal species G. attenuatus (Garrick), known from the outer continental shelf and upper slope adjacent New Zealand. Gollum suluensis differs from its congener in having a darker, plainer and less contrasted coloration, softer body, shorter and broader snout, smaller spiracle, larger pectoral fin, wider head, as well as larger proportions of the nostril, mouth and interorbital space. Based on their narrow and widely separated distributions, these sharks are probably relict species. © 2011 Magnolia Press.