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News Article
Site: http://news.yahoo.com/green/

BARCELONA (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Reducing food waste around the world would help curb emissions of planet-warming gases, lessening some of the impacts of climate change such as more extreme weather and rising seas, scientists said on Thursday. Up to 14 percent of emissions from agriculture in 2050 could be avoided by managing food use and distribution better, according to a new study from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). "Agriculture is a major driver of climate change, accounting for more than 20 percent of overall global greenhouse gas emissions in 2010," said co-author Prajal Pradhan. "Avoiding food loss and waste would therefore avoid unnecessary greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate climate change." Between 30 and 40 percent of food produced around the world is never eaten, because it is spoiled after harvest and during transportation, or thrown away by shops and consumers. The share of food wasted is expected to increase drastically if emerging economies like China and India adopt Western food habits, including a shift to eating more meat, the researchers warned. Richer countries tend to consume more food than is healthy or simply waste it, they noted. As poorer countries develop and the world's population grows, emissions associated with food waste could soar from 0.5 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year to between 1.9 and 2.5 gigatonnes annually by mid-century, showed the study published in the Environmental Science & Technology journal. It is widely argued that cutting food waste and distributing the world's surplus food where it is needed could help tackle hunger in places that do not have enough - especially given that land to expand farming is limited. But Jürgen Kropp, another of the study's co-authors and PIK's head of climate change and development, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation the potential for food waste curbs to reduce emissions should be given more attention. "It is not a strategy of governments at the moment," he said. The researchers analyzed food requirements in the past and for different future scenarios. They found that while global average food demand per person remains almost constant, in the last five decades food availability has rapidly increased - hiking the emissions related to growing surplus food by more than 300 percent. The paper did not look at how food waste could be shrunk, but initiatives to tackle the problem are already on the rise in both developed and developing countries. In January, for example, 30 company heads, government ministers, and executives with foundations, research groups and charities launched a coalition to work towards cutting food waste by half and reducing food loss significantly by 2030. The aims are in line with the new global development goals that took effect this year. "Champions 12.3", named after the food-waste goal number, includes the bosses of Tesco, Nestle, Rabobank, Unilever, Oxfam America, WWF International and the Rockefeller Foundation. Andrew Steer, another coalition member who heads the World Resources Institute, noted then that if food loss and waste were a country, it would be the third largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world. "Food loss and waste hurts people, costs money and harms the planet," he said in a statement. "Cutting (it) is a no-brainer."


News Article
Site: http://news.yahoo.com/green/

BARCELONA (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Reducing food waste around the world would help curb emissions of planet-warming gases, lessening some of the impacts of climate change such as more extreme weather and rising seas, scientists said on Thursday. Up to 14 percent of emissions from agriculture in 2050 could be avoided by managing food use and distribution better, according to a new study from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK). "Agriculture is a major driver of climate change, accounting for more than 20 percent of overall global greenhouse gas emissions in 2010," said co-author Prajal Pradhan. "Avoiding food loss and waste would therefore avoid unnecessary greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate climate change." Between 30 and 40 percent of food produced around the world is never eaten, because it is spoiled after harvest and during transportation, or thrown away by shops and consumers. The share of food wasted is expected to increase drastically if emerging economies like China and India adopt Western food habits, including a shift to eating more meat, the researchers warned. Richer countries tend to consume more food than is healthy or simply waste it, they noted. As poorer countries develop and the world's population grows, emissions associated with food waste could soar from 0.5 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent per year to between 1.9 and 2.5 gigatonnes annually by mid-century, showed the study published in the Environmental Science & Technology journal. It is widely argued that cutting food waste and distributing the world's surplus food where it is needed could help tackle hunger in places that do not have enough - especially given that land to expand farming is limited. But Jürgen Kropp, another of the study's co-authors and PIK's head of climate change and development, told the Thomson Reuters Foundation the potential for food waste curbs to reduce emissions should be given more attention. "It is not a strategy of governments at the moment," he said. The researchers analyzed food requirements in the past and for different future scenarios. They found that while global average food demand per person remains almost constant, in the last five decades food availability has rapidly increased - hiking the emissions related to growing surplus food by more than 300 percent. The paper did not look at how food waste could be shrunk, but initiatives to tackle the problem are already on the rise in both developed and developing countries. In January, for example, 30 company heads, government ministers, and executives with foundations, research groups and charities launched a coalition to work towards cutting food waste by half and reducing food loss significantly by 2030. The aims are in line with the new global development goals that took effect this year. "Champions 12.3", named after the food-waste goal number, includes the bosses of Tesco, Nestle, Rabobank, Unilever, Oxfam America, WWF International and the Rockefeller Foundation. Andrew Steer, another coalition member who heads the World Resources Institute, noted then that if food loss and waste were a country, it would be the third largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world. "Food loss and waste hurts people, costs money and harms the planet," he said in a statement. "Cutting (it) is a no-brainer."


News Article | April 9, 2010
Site: www.cnet.com

Smart meters are arriving at homes and causing a stir. Consumers in California and Texas have complained about higher bills due to smart meters. And for a second time in about a year, researchersin the meters. It's enough to make one wonder: are these devices going to become a security nightmare, allowing attackers to do everything from vandalize home area networks to cause power outages? A smattering of utility representatives and experts in the field say consumers shouldn't panic, that security issues at this point are theoretical and the industry is working hard to resolve them. "We're in a lot better shape than we were two years ago," said Ed Legge, spokesman for The Edison Electric Institute, a trade group representing most of the U.S. electric utilities. "The industry as a whole has done a lot and we'll continue working to ensure reliability and that includes securing the system from cyberattacks." The problem stems from the fact that two worlds are colliding. There's the universe of utility companies that use SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems for monitoring and controlling critical infrastructure, and then that of the Internet. Putting smart meters outside of homes that automatically report usage and performance measurements in real time will make the system more efficient and save money, but it also provides additional targets for attacks, experts say. "The smart grid is by definition going to be less secure than the existing grid," said Andy Bochman, founder of the Smart Grid Security Blog. "That's what happens when you greatly interconnect something that previously used isolation as one of its primary security strategies. It's going to be less secure and more people from more diverse backgrounds will be able to reach parts of it ... even if we do a great job of securing it with rock solid security technologies and policies." But the picture isn't all that bleak, he said. "The positive side is it's the smarts in the smart grid that can detect problems early and respond much more rapidly than the mechanical, human systems can today," Bochman said. "That will help us work around those isolated security incidents and ultimately make the grid more reliable and efficient than it is today." Part of the problem is that there needs to be a shift in the mindset of typically slow-moving utilities, said Brian Monkman, technology programs manager at ICSA Labs, a testing and certification firm. The utilities are used to designing and implementing technology that has a projected lifespan of 30 to 40 years, which is eons in Internet time, he said. "We have power meters within the country that were installed at a house 60 to 70 years ago and it's still running," Monkman said. "The biggest fear is that the lessons learned over the course of the last 10 to 15 years on the Internet will not be carried over to the smart grid." The industry had a wake-up call last year when IOActive released a report in March 2009 that concluded that multiple smart grid platforms were susceptible to common security vulnerabilities that affect computers and Web servers on a daily basis. "In 2009, we saw a good rush to market, and at that point people came together and some vendors have made their meters pretty darn secure," said David Baker, director of services at IOActive, an infrastructure security consultancy. "We've seen individual utilities working with vendors. They're really interested in fixing the security problems and they've come a long way." The industry isn't waiting around to debate security. About 60 million smart meters will be deployed in the U.S. this year, covering about half of the households), according to figures from The Edison Foundation's Institute for Electric Efficiency (PDF). The action is being propelled at least in part by the $3.4 billion in stimulus funds set aside for smart grid technologies. Vendors are cashing in on the electric industry's move toward efficiency so fast that the devices aren't being built with security in mind, said Gary McGraw, chief technology officer at software security consulting firm Cigital. "Major vendors supplying these meters aren't thinking of them as something that needs to be hardened against attack in any way," he said. The utilities have to put pressure on the hardware manufacturers to improve the security in the appliances or face unwanted regulation, he added. What about the meters that are already attached to homes--can they be fixed? For the most part, the devices can be upgraded with security enhancements later, according to IOActive's Baker. "New meters are flashable and you can upgrade the firmware (fixed programs that control devices) remotely to provide new security features and more robust firmware, so in essence, you can provide a remote way to upgrade the software on it to make it more secure," he said. "That said, there are potential weaknesses that are a result of older hardware being already deployed that have hardware weaknesses." It's unclear what can be done to secure the older hardware other than swap it out, but that wouldn't happen for at least a decade, according to Joe Weiss, managing partner at Applied Control Solutions, which offers consulting services to utilities. Internet-utility mashup One company that is jumping in with a solution is San Francisco-based Grid Net. The company is applying encryption, authentication, and multilayer security technologies that are common in the Internet world to the smart grid platforms. "Grid Net is proposing a different approach--embracing Internet Protocol for the utility infrastructure," said Andres Carvallo, chief strategy officer at Grid Net who helped build the first smart grid while working at Austin Energy, the ninth largest public power utility in the U.S. "The grid needs to reinvent itself and be distributed, interactive, and self-healing." The company has two deployments in Australia, pilots with General Electric and Consumer's Energy in Michigan and American Electric Power, and is working with six other utilities in the U.S. that Carvallo said he could not disclose. "Our software is embedded on smart meters, electrical vehicles or solar panels, inverters, transformers switches...any device within the utility infrastructure," he said. Asked about the concern that the meters could be attacked and used to commit chaos in the grid much like botnets of compromised computers on the Internet are used to shut down Web sites, Carvallo said his company addresses that problem. "If there is a compromise on the endpoint it can only go as far as breaking down that one device," he said. Utility industry veteran Weiss said Grid Net's approach could end up causing more problems than it solves. "IT solutions and suppliers have caused multiple cases of shutting down control equipment and in at least one case have killed hardware. And the reason is they're trying to employ technology that works in the IT or enterprise environment that simply doesn't work in an industrial control environment," he said. "You have to understand the environment you're trying to apply it in. For example, penicillin is a great solution unless you have an allergy to penicillin." In addition, the Internet technologies won't be able to help secure activity at the substations and control centers and power plants, where legacy equipment has vulnerabilities built in, Weiss said. "We just had a situation occur this past year where a utility tried to meet the NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corp.) cybersecurity requirements to put in a security locking device," he said. "That device shut down the hard drives and all of the SCADA functions. That was the security device. Is something wrong with this picture?" While the smart meters could conceivably be used to compromise other meters, it's highly unlikely they would offer an attacker an easy path to a control system at a utility company, said Brian Ahern, president and chief executive of security provider Industrial Defender "Hackers have the potential to create nuisance attack scenarios that are focused on residential communities, but it's highly improbable...that it would find its way back to take control of the nation's bulk power system," he said. Jesse Berst, managing director of the Global Smart Energy consultancy and founder of Smart Grid News, said he didn't see any reason why the energy industry wouldn't be able to secure the infrastructure as it modernizes. "The physical security concerns me more than the cyber security because we've solved the cyber (security issues) for other big consequential infrastructures (like financial and Internet) and I think we can solve it to that same degree of safety for this one," Berst said. Experts agreed that it will take all parties working together to tackle the problem. "This requires a cyber Manhattan Project," Weiss said. "The genie is out of the bottle. We just have to figure out how to do it in a more reasoned, knowledgeable way...There is no silver bullet."


Rangeley R.W.,WWF Canada | Davies R.W.D.,WWF International
Marine Policy | Year: 2012

Long-term investment to drive the adoption of precautionary, adaptive and resilience-building fisheries management measures is urgently required, especially given the financially difficult transition period to reach sustainable fisheries. In this paper a case for investing in the recovery of large marine ecosystems is provided based on the future value of recovered fish stocks. It is argued that the current market-based sustainable seafood movement alone will not affect the scale of change needed and must be complemented by investment in fundamental conservation measures that will lead to the recovery of marine ecosystems and promote long-term sustainable use. A rationale for addressing the economically challenging transition period is provided and the basis of a new financial institution to finance the measures necessary for realising the economic, social and environmental benefits of large-scale fisheries reform is proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Davies R.W.D.,WWF International | Rangeley R.,WWF Canada
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

Demand for wild (non-farmed) seafood is increasingly reliant upon a natural capital base that is rapidly diminishing. Despite this, studies show that changes in management could increase fisheries' profitability whilst also protecting fish stocks. This premise is approached by looking specifically at north Atlantic cod-a species that has collapsed in many regions but with evidence to suggest it has the biological potential to recover, despite concerns about altered ecological niches and changing oceanic conditions. The key issue is how the potential economic benefits of cod recovery can provide the fishing sector with incentives for change and how these can be translated into a case for investment, given the financially difficult transition period that currently inhibits fisheries reform. In examining this, the paper concludes that repayable financial investments and rights-based management, tailored to local situations, are required to create resilient and diverse ecosystems that underpin improved seafood economies. It is essential, however, that management and policy solutions adopt a holistic ecosystem-based management approach. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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