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Setiawan R.Y.,Diponegoro University | Habibi A.,WWF Indonesia
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing

Seasonal variation of chlorophyll-A (Chl-a) concentration in the Gulf of Tomini (GT) is investigated using SeaWiFS-derived sea surface Chl-a, QuikSCAT-derived ocean surface wind vector and Pathfinder sea surface temperature (SST) measurements. Results show that Chl-A concentration in the GT attained maximum in August (0.59 mg/m 3) and is primarily controlled by monsoon winds. During summer, strong winds pass through the Maluku archipelago and blast out toward the Maluku Sea, and impinge the coastal mountain on the southeastern GT (GT tip). As a result, a strong wind jet observed at the open-ocean of GT and is suspected to be the main driving force for the Chl-A bloom in the region. The center of the bloom is located consistently with the wind stress maximum (0.28 Nm -2) and low SST (27.3°C). The present study describes the seasonal and spatial distributions of the Chl-A bloom in GT and its associated oceanographic features. © 2008 IEEE. Source

Wulffraat S.,WWF Indonesia | Morrison J.,WWF U.S.
Environmental Conservation

The ultimate measure of the success or failure of conservation initiatives in an area will be the ecological health of that area and the sustainability of institutions which support that ecological health. Heretofore, no comprehensive data has been presented about the current conservation state of the area known as the Heart of Borneo (HoB), a mostly intact subset of the island of Borneo, which is an international conservation priority. This paper identifies a set of indicators representative of the biodiversity status of the HoB; collecting and analysing data concerning these indicators and combining these data with supplemental conservation information should provide an accurate assessment of the overall conservation state of the HoB. Based on the indicators identified in this study, the general biodiversity status of the HoB is rated as good, or viable, although there are specific elements of concern. Using the threat indicators identified in this study, the overall threat level is medium. Major threats from industrial forest conversion and mining currently exist mainly on the edges of the HoB, but are likely to expand further inland without any intervention simply based on proximity. Though most habitats within (but not outside) the HoB are generally intact, the current protected area system is insufficiently representative of the natural ecosystems of the HoB area and its management effectiveness is as yet unknown. © Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2013. Source

Jaenicke J.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Wosten H.,Wageningen University | Budiman A.,WWF Indonesia | Siegert F.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Extensive degradation of Indonesian peatlands by deforestation, drainage and recurrent fires causes release of huge amounts of peat soil carbon to the atmosphere. Construction of drainage canals is associated with conversion to other land uses, especially plantations of oil palm and pulpwood trees, and with widespread illegal logging to facilitate timber transport. A lowering of the groundwater level leads to an increase in oxidation and subsidence of peat. Therefore, the groundwater level is the main control on carbon dioxide emissions from peatlands. Restoring the peatland hydrology is the only way to prevent peat oxidation and mitigate CO2 emissions. In this study we present a strategy for improved planning of rewetting measures by dam constructions. The study area is a vast peatland with limited accessibility in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Field inventory and remote sensing data are used to generate a detailed 3D model of the peat dome and a hydrological model predicts the rise in groundwater levels once dams have been constructed. Successful rewetting of a 590 km2 large area of drained peat swamp forest could result in mitigated emissions of 1. 4-1. 6 Mt CO2 yearly. This equates to 6% of the carbon dioxide emissions by civil aviation in the European Union in 2006 and can be achieved with relatively small efforts and at low costs. The proposed methodology allows a detailed planning of hydrological restoration of peatlands with interesting impacts on carbon trading for the voluntary carbon market. © The Author(s) 2010. Source

Wood P.,Green Gecko Ltd | Sheil D.,Norwegian University of Life Sciences | Sheil D.,Center for International Forest Research | Syaf R.,KKI WARSI | Warta Z.,WWF Indonesia
Society and Natural Resources

We investigated the implementation and sustainability of village conservation agreements and village conservation grants facilitated by an integrated conservation and development project (ICDP) around the Kerinci Seblat National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia, 5 years after the project closed. Forty-three percent of agreement actions (n = 180) and 30% of grant activities (n = 74) were sustained. Informants identified numerous factors influencing success, but statistical tests failed to detect simple explanations. Conservation-livelihood agreements have a greater chance of success when preexisting factors are understood and the purpose of the agreement itself is clearly defined. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Whittle M.,University of Sheffield | Quegan S.,University of Sheffield | Uryu Y.,World Wildlife Fund | Stuewe M.,World Wildlife Fund | Yulianto K.,WWF Indonesia
Remote Sensing of Environment

Indonesia has one of the highest rates of deforestation in the world, with a significant impact on the planetary carbon balance and loss of biodiversity. It also covers a vast and often inaccessible area frequently obscured by clouds, making accurate, timely monitoring of its forests difficult. Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are unhindered by clouds and can provide clear images whenever there is a satellite pass, hence provide a potentially important tool for monitoring forest changes. Over Sumatra, the JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) PALSAR L-band radar provided both ScanSAR HH polarisation with repeat images every 46. days, thus providing much more frequent clear imagery than other available rapid deforestation monitoring tools, and approximately annual Fine-Beam Dual (FBD) image pairs with HH and HV polarisations. Temporal analysis of ScanSAR images shows that deforestation in the Sumatran province of Riau can be identified by large values of the temporal standard deviation, but high detection rates are associated with high false alarm rates, particularly in swamp forest. There does not appear to be a reliable signature of the onset of forest disturbance in the ScanSAR time-series. Deforestation can also be detected in annual FBD data by combining increases and decreases in both the HH and HV channels, since the four types of change are complementary; these different polarisation responses indicate a variety of physical processes that may be involved in the radar signature of deforestation. Significant improvements in performance are possible by combining FBD and ScanSAR data, giving 72% detection of deforestation for a false alarm rate (detection of deforestation in undisturbed forest) of 20%. Error analysis based on (a) likely errors in the Landsat data used to provide a reference for deforestation and (b) differences between the times of acquisition of the Landsat data and the FBD data suggest that the true detection rate for the FBD data is underestimated. All the analysis in the paper uses fully automatic methods, but it is likely that false alarms in the ScanSAR data due to periodic flooding could be reduced by human inspection. The performance figures reported here could also be improved if knowledge about the locations of dry and swamp forest was included in the methodology. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.. Source

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