Sasaki-Yamamoto Y.,Kyoto University |
Akamatsu T.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries Engineering |
Akamatsu T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency |
Ura T.,Tokyo University of Science |
And 5 more authors.
Marine Mammal Science | Year: 2013
We monitored the underwater movements of Ganges River dolphins using stationed stereo acoustic data loggers. We estimated these movements using changes in the relative angle of the sound source direction (trajectory). Of the total acoustic recordings (66 h), 26.2% contained trajectories of dolphins, and 78.6% of these trajectories involved single animals, suggesting that dolphins tended to swim alone and were localized near the monitoring station. The observed trajectories were categorized as follows: staying type characterized by small changes in the sound source direction, moving type A (moving in the same direction), and moving type B (moving up and down the stream during recording). The average interpulse intervals of sounds in moving types A and B were significantly shorter than that of the staying type, suggesting that dolphins produce the former types of trajectories to echolocate across shorter distances during movement. The frequency of occurrence of moving type A increased during the night, whereas that of type B increased in the late afternoon and that of the staying type increased during the daytime. These results indicate that dolphins moving at night tended to use short-range echolocation, whereas during the day, they remained in relatively small areas and used long-range sonar. © 2012 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.
Chakraborty S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research |
Chakraborty S.,Indian Institute of Science |
Boominathan D.,WWF India |
Desai A.A.,WWF India and WWF International |
Vidya T.N.C.,Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research
Conservation Genetics | Year: 2014
With growing human and, possibly, elephant populations and a drastic increase in anthropogenic activities, human-elephant conflict in Asia has been on the rise. The Alur area in Karnataka state, southern India, is one such case in point, which has witnessed increasing levels of human-elephant conflict over the last two decades. The tiny, moderately protected habitat available for elephants in this human-dominated landscape does not appear to be able to support elephants over the long term. Options to deal with the escalating conflict include translocation of elephants, bringing elephants into captivity, and culling. We carried out a molecular genetic study of elephants in the Alur area to estimate the minimum number of elephants using the area, the sex ratio, genetic relatedness between individuals, and genetic structure with regard to the larger population in the landscape, so that informed management decisions could be made. Fresh dung samples were collected from the field and genotyped using 12 microsatellite loci. We found 29 unique individuals in the population, comprising 17 females and 12 males of different age classes. Relatedness between females suggested independent colonisations by discrete, small groups rather than by one cohesive clan of related females. This obviates the need for a single solution for dealing with all the females in the area in order to maintain social integrity, and has implications in terms how these elephants can be dealt with. We demonstrate how social organization inferred through molecular data from non-invasive sampling can inform management decisions. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Batchelor C.,Water Resources Management Ltd |
Reddy V.R.,Livelihoods and Natural Resource Management Institute |
Linstead C.,WWF UK |
Dhar M.,WWF India |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014
Water saving and conservation technologies (WCTs) have been promoted widely in India as a practical means of improving the water use efficiency and freeing up water for other uses (e.g. for maintaining environmental flows in river systems). However, there is increasing evidence that, somewhat paradoxically, WCTs often contribute to intensification of water use by irrigated and rainfed farming systems. This occurs when: (1) Increased crop yields are coupled with increased consumptive water use and/or (2) Improved efficiency, productivity and profitability encourages farmers to increase the area cropped and/or to adopt multiple cropping systems. In both cases, the net effect is an increase in annual evapotranspiration that, particularly in areas of increasing water scarcity, can have the trade-off of reduced environmental flows. Recognition is also increasing that the claimed water savings of many WCTs may have been overstated. The root cause of this problem lies in confusion over what constitutes real water saving at the system or basin scales. The simple fact is that some of the water that is claimed to be 'saved' by WCTs would have percolated into the groundwater from where it can be and often is accessed and reused. Similarly, some of the “saved“ runoff can be used downstream by, for example, farmers or freshwater ecosystems. This paper concludes that, particularly in areas facing increasing water scarcity, environmental flows will only be restored and maintained if they are given explicit (rather than theoretical or notional) attention. With this in mind, a simple methodology is proposed for deciding when and where WCTs may have detrimental impacts on environmental flows. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Forrest J.L.,Conservation Science Program |
Wikramanayake E.,Conservation Science Program |
Shrestha R.,WWF Nepal |
Areendran G.,WWF India |
And 6 more authors.
Biological Conservation | Year: 2012
Climate change is likely to affect the persistence of large, space-requiring species through habitat shifts, loss, and fragmentation. Anthropogenic land and resource use changes related to climate change can also impact the survival of wildlife. Thus, climate change has to be integrated into biodiversity conservation plans. We developed a hybrid approach to climate-adaptive conservation landscape planning for snow leopards in the Himalayan Mountains. We first mapped current snow leopard habitat using a mechanistic approach that incorporated field-based data, and then combined it with a climate impact model using a correlative approach. For the latter, we used statistical methods to test hypotheses about climatic drivers of treeline in the Himalaya and its potential response to climate change under three IPCC greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. We then assessed how change in treeline might affect the distribution of snow leopard habitat. Results indicate that about 30% of snow leopard habitat in the Himalaya may be lost due to a shifting treeline and consequent shrinking of the alpine zone, mostly along the southern edge of the range and in river valleys. But, a considerable amount of snow leopard habitat and linkages are likely to remain resilient to climate change, and these should be secured. This is because, as the area of snow leopard habitat fragments and shrinks, threats such as livestock grazing, retaliatory killing, and medicinal plant collection can intensify. We propose this approach for landscape conservation planning for other species with extensive spatial requirements that can also be umbrella species for overall biodiversity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Paliwal A.,WWF India |
Mathur V.B.,Wildlife Institute of India
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014
Landscape structure is often regarded as an important factor that governs the distribution and abundance of species. Therefore it is critical to understand the landscapes and their dynamics. Patterns of landscape elements strongly influence the ecological characteristics. This study was designed to document and map the current status of the tropical dry deciduous forest of the Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Central India, (using IRS P6 LISS IV data) and to describe its landscape structure at three levels of organization viz. landscape, class, and patch. The study area was classified into 10 land cover classes that include 6 vegetation classes. The landscape structure was analyzed using FRAGSTATS using 12 set of indices. The TATR landscapes have a total of 2,307 patches with a mean patch size of 25.67 ha and patch density of 1.7 patches per km2. Amongst all land cover classes, mixed bamboo forest is dominant-it occupied maximum area (77.99%)-while riparian forest is least represented (0.32%). Mixed forest has maximum number of patches among all vegetation classes. Results have shown that despite being dominant in the area, mixed bamboo forest has low patch density (0.25/100 ha). Dominance of mixed bamboo forest is attributed to large patch sizes and not to the number of patches. This study has focussed on the approach of integrating satellite forest classification and forest inventory data for studying forest landscape patterns. © 2014 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Midha N.,WWF India |
Mathur P.K.,Wildlife Institute of India
Environmental Management | Year: 2014
The Sharda River creates and maintains the ecologically diverse remnant patches of rare Terai ecosystem in northern India. This study used repeat satellite imagery and geographic information system analysis to assess the planform dynamics along a 60 km length of the Sharda River between 1977 and 2001 to understand the altered dynamics and its plausible causes in this data-poor region. Analyses revealed that the Sharda River has undergone significant change corresponding to enhanced instability in terms of increased number of neck cut-offs and consistent occurrence of avulsions in subsequent shorter assessment periods. An increased channel area (8 %), decreased sinuosity (15 %), increased braiding intensity, and abrupt migrations were also documented. The river has migrated toward the east with its west bankline being more unstable. The maximum shifts were 2.85 km in 13 years (1977-1990), 2.33 km in next 9 years (1990-1999), and a substantial shift of 2.39 km in just 2 years (1999-2001). The altered dynamics is making the future of critical wildlife habitats in Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary and North Kheri Forest Division precarious and causing significant economic damage. Extensive deforestation and expansion of agriculture since the 1950s in the catchment area are presumed to have severely impacted the equilibrium of the river, which urgently needs a management plan including wildlife habitat conservation, control, and risk reduction. The present study provides a strong foundation for understanding channel changes in the Sharda River and the finding can serve as a valuable information base for effective management planning and ecological restoration. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Choudhary S.,Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University |
Dey S.,Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University |
Sagar V.,WWF India |
Nair T.,Wildlife Conservation Society |
And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2012
River flow regulation and fragmentation is a global threat to freshwater biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and associated human activities. Large dams in the Ganges river basin of the Indian subcontinent have severely altered natural flow regimes, particularly in the low-flow dry season. Altered flows could have negative impacts on endangered species such as the Ganges river dolphin Platanista gangetica. Habitat use by river dolphins was investigated in relation to river channel depth and morphology, over 332km of the flow-regulated Gandak River in India. Dolphin distribution patterns were compared across multiple spatial scales in the Gandak, Kosi, Chambal, Sone Rivers and the upper and lower sections of the Ganges main stem. Dolphin presence was recorded in 40% of segments in the Gandak river, with a best count of 257 (range 250-267) and average individual encounter rates at 0.75 dolphins km -1 (SD 0.89). Bayesian zero-inflated spatial models showed that river dolphin abundance was positively influenced by river depth, presence of meanders and corresponded closely with gillnet fishing. Minimum mid-channel depth requirements were estimated at 5.2m for dolphin adults and between 2.2 and 2.4m for mother-calf pairs. Adult dolphins showed highly similar habitat preferences across regulated or unregulated rivers, for depths >5m, and meandering channels. Dry-season habitat availability was reduced as the degree of flow regulation increased across rivers, mainly owing to loss of lateral and longitudinal channel connectivity. Overall encounter rates were reduced from >3km -1 in less regulated stretches, to <0.3km -1 in regulated rivers. Clustering of dolphins in deep pools increased along the gradient of river flow reduction, with dolphins almost absent from intervening segments because of low flow rates. These results indicate the importance of maintaining adequate dry-season flows to ensure river habitat availability and connectivity for dolphins. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Khan M.S.,WWF India |
Pant A.,WWF India
Biodiversitas | Year: 2014
Decline in the populations of Indus River Dolphins Platanista gangetica minor throughout its range of distribution and a perception that it is a 'keystone species' for riverine ecosystem stirred the idea of proposed study. Deficiency of baseline data on its distribution and ecology is a major constraint that this (only known sub-population in India) species' conservation is facing in the country. Thus to ascertain its conservation status and distribution pattern, the study was conducted between December 2010 to June 2012. During the study, three schools of dolphins have been identified, one each along Beas bridge-Gagdewal; Baguwal-Dhunda and Karmowala-Harike that comprised of adult, sub-adult and calves. The occurrence dolphins was found attributed to preferred habitat features such as deep pools, slow water current, abundant prey base and low disturbance.
Maheshwari A.,WWF India |
Midha N.,WWF India |
Cherukupalli A.,WWF India
Human Dimensions of Wildlife | Year: 2014
When large carnivores cause socioeconomic losses in a community, conflict increases, retaliatory killing of the carnivore can occur, and conservation efforts are undermined. We focused on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and economic compensation schemes as approaches for managing conflict. PRA is a tool for collecting data on the large carnivore-human conflict and economic compensation schemes for those affected negatively by carnivore presence. We reviewed published papers and reports on large carnivore-human conflicts, PRA, and compensation schemes. This article details insights into common pitfalls, key lessons learned, possible solutions including new approaches for compensation and protocols to be followed while managing large carnivore-human conflict. We hope to contribute to a meaningful dialogue between locals, managers, and researchers and help in effective implementation of conservation programs to mitigate large carnivore-human conflict around the protected areas. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Shahnawaz Khan M.,WWF India
IUCN/SCC Otter Specialist Group Bulletin | Year: 2015
Decline in the populations of the Smooth-coated Otter throughout its range of distribution and a perception that it is a 'keystone species' for riverine ecosystem stirred the idea of the presented paper. The species inhabits major freshwater wetlands throughout the south and south-east Asia and often comes into the direct conflict with humans for food and habitat. Further the species is also suffering with neglecting attitude and mismanagement due to lack of baseline information. Thus WWF India initiated the conservation work towards the documentation of the distribution of the species in Punjab in 2010. State wide population assessment surveys and secondary information obtained shows the occurrence of smooth-coated otters along some stretches of Rivers Beas, Sutlej and Ravi and Harike wetland in Punjab.