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Cali, Colombia

Wyborn C.,Luc Hoffmann Institute | van Kerkhoff L.,Australian National University | Dunlop M.,CSIRO | Dudley N.,Equilibrium | And 2 more authors.
Biodiversity and Conservation

Despite significant progress in understanding climate risks, adaptation efforts in biodiversity conservation remain limited. Adaptation requires addressing immediate conservation threats while also attending to long term, highly uncertain and potentially transformative future changes. To date, conservation research has focused more on projecting climate impacts and identifying possible strategies, rather than understanding how governance enables or constrains adaptation actions. We outline an approach to future-oriented conservation that combines the capacities to anticipate future ecological change; to understand the implications of that change for social, political and ecological values; and the ability to engage with the governance (and politics) of adaptation. Our approach builds on the adaptive management and governance literature, however we explicitly address the (often contested) rules, knowledge and values that enable or constrain adaptation. We call for a broader focus that extends beyond technical approaches to acknowledge the socio-political challenges inherent to adaptation. More importantly, we suggest that conservation policy makers and practitioners can use this approach to facilitate learning and adaptation in the context of complexity, transformational change and uncertainty. © 2016, The Author(s). Source

Management effectiveness assessment is the level of achievement of the objectives for which a protected area was created. In this paper we present a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of management in nature reserves of civil society and pilot applications in two reserves for the Association Colombian Network of Nature Reserves of the Civil Society (Resnatur). From literature review, semistructured interviews, field trips, workshops with reserves owners and technical staff of Resnatur and WWF Colombia, the methodology was developed and subsequently implemented in each reserve with support from its owners. The methodology consists of a principle, four criteria and 20 indicators, each with three verifiables, and five categories of success. It was identified that the two reserves are meeting their objectives and recommendations for their adaptive management, adjustments to management plans and indications about of the scope of the assessment are suggested. The methodology can be applied in nature reserves with several objectives (conservation, production systems and social network) and it complements the efforts of assessing management effectiveness in Colombia's protected areas including national, regional and local level. Source

Andraka S.,WWF | Mug M.,WWF | Hall M.,Inter American Tropical Tuna Commission IATTC | Pons M.,Research Center y Conservacion Marina | And 13 more authors.
Biological Conservation

Since 2004, governments and non-governmental organizations, together with the fishing communities from nine countries, from Mexico to Peru, have implemented joint efforts to reduce incidental mortality of sea turtles in artisanal longline fisheries of the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These countries are involved in a Regional Sea Turtle Bycatch Program to achieve this goal. Circle hooks have been proposed as a way to mitigate incidental mortality of sea turtles. Thus, we analyze the performance of circle hooks in relation to J-style and tuna hooks on the hooking rates of target and non-target species in the artisanal surface longline fisheries of three of the participating countries with the largest sample sizes (Ecuador, Panama and Costa Rica). These fisheries target mahi-mahi, Coryphaena hippurus, or a combination of tunas, billfishes and sharks (TBS), and use different techniques and gear configurations to catch their targets. For the TBS fishery we presented the results of comparisons between tuna hooks and 16/0 circle hooks from Ecuador, Panama and Costa Rica, and between tuna hooks and 18/0 circle hooks in Costa Rica. For the mahi-mahi fishery, we analyzed the performance of 14/0 and 15/0 circle hooks in Ecuadorian vessels and 16/0 circle hooks in Costa Rican vessels vs. the traditional J-style hooks. A total of 730,362 hooks were observed in 3126 sets. Hooking rates for target and non-target species were not consistent for all fisheries and countries analyzed. However, circle hooks reduced sea turtle hooking rates in most of the comparisons. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Gomez C.,SELVA Investigacion Para la Conservacion en El Neotropico | Bayly N.J.,SELVA Investigacion Para la Conservacion en El Neotropico | Gonzalez A.M.,University of Saskatchewan | Abril E.,Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, Bogota | And 9 more authors.
Ornitologia Colombiana

Research on Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds in Colombia has strengthened in the last decade although most work has been centered on boreal migrants. Achievements are reflected in recent publications, in the studies presented at national ornithology conferences, and in the publication of the National Plan for Conservation of Migratory Species. However, there are still significant information gaps and challenges that must be addressed to guide the conservation of migratory bird populations in decline. During the III Colombian Ornithological Congress in 2010, twelve talks were presented during a symposium on migratory birds. The differentiation of studies between winter and migration periods stood out as a novelty, as well as the presentation of projects aimed at answering questions about the ecology of species instead of showing exclusively descriptive data. Discussions during the symposium generated new research questions and identified current gaps in knowledge. The main conclusion was that there is a need to generate information about the less studied migratory systems like the Neotropical austral, intratropical and local systems. For all systems we need a more comprehensive assessment of species' distribution ranges during stationary periods (or winter) and migration. Habitat use and relative habitat quality for different species, considering body condition and survival between periods, must be investigated as well. Studies on migratory strategies, migratory routes, survival during winter and migration, and on migratory connectivity, should be replicated in more species and locations because they are critical to understanding the mechanisms regulating populations and the conservation needs of each species. Finally, coordinated efforts, the publishing of research findings and the establishment of national and international alliances will be crucial to increase our knowledge on Nearctic-Neotropical-Austral migrants in Colombia. Source

Castellanos-Galindo G.A.,WWF Colombia | Castellanos-Galindo G.A.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology | Sanchez G.C.,WWF Colombia | Zapata L.,WWF Colombia

Migrations between freshwater and marine environments are a common strategy among gobies of the Sicydiinae sub-family. Sicydiinae post-larvae occur in high density to the extent of supporting artisanal fisheries. Here, we document for the first time in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (Colombia), an artisanal fishery based on sicydiine post-larvae (Sicydium salvini) returning to relatively short and steep rivers of the coast. The migration and harvesting is comparable to that of sicydiines elsewhere in the world (e.g. Dominica, West Indies) with a lunar periodicity and the use of similar fishing methods. Harvesting can be as muchas 1.37 ton/month at a single village of ca. 5000 inhabitants. This catch corresponds to a removal of ca. 20 million post-larvae from the population. This fishery is unmanaged in Colombia, but represents an important alternative seasonal protein source for local villagers. Given the likely human population increase predicted for this area of the Colombian Pacific, a careful monitoring programme of this fishery is recommended. Source

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