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North Vancouver, Canada

Lebel P.M.,WWF Canada | Reed M.G.,University of Saskatchewan
Canadian Water Resources Journal

The long history of poor water quality plaguing First Nations communities in Canada has received little public attention in comparison to the waterborne disease outbreaks in Walkerton, Ontario in 2000 and North Battleford, Saskatchewan in 2001. In recent years, initiatives from the federal government and considerable financial support have improved the quality of drinking water on some reserves. However, the challenges First Nations communities face in the provision of safe drinking water remain, and certain systems continue to pose health risks. As a result, there is an emerging interest in the ability of First Nations communities to effectively manage their drinking water resources. The purpose of this paper is to establish an analytical framework for assessing the capacity of a First Nations community to provide safe drinking water and to apply the framework to a First Nations reserve community in north-central Saskatchewan (SK). Through multiple data sources, including individual interviews, a public workshop, documents and inspection reports, and water quality data, water system capacity was considered in terms of financial, human resources, institutional, social/political, and technical dimensions. It was determined that there are no serious deficiencies in the management of the community's drinking water. However, a few flaws in certain aspects of drinking water management were detected. These include weak linkages between the agencies responsible for drinking water provision, and a low level of drinking water safety for community residents served by the truck haul distribution system. This research confirms the multi-dimensional aspects of water system capacity, reveals the necessity for different levels of authority to work together, and provides an analytical framework which may be applicable to future studies examining First Nations and small-scale drinking water systems. © 2010 Canadian Water Resources Association. Source

Fuentes M.M.P.B.,James Cook University | Fish M.R.,WWF Canada | Maynard J.A.,University of Melbourne
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

Climate change poses a serious threat to sea turtles (Cheloniidae) as their terrestrial reproductive phase is only successful within a limited range of environmental and physical conditions. These conditions are likely to become less optimal as climate change progresses. To date, management and conservation of sea turtles has focused almost entirely on non-climatic stressors, due at least in part to practitioners not knowing what strategies to take and the feasibility and risks of potential strategies. To aid the management of sea turtles in a changing environment, we identified management strategies via a focus workshop and surveys to mitigate the impacts of climate change to the terrestrial reproductive phase of sea turtles. The effectiveness, ecological risks and potential social and logistical constraints associated with implementing each of the identified management strategies is discussed. Twenty management strategies were identified; strategies varied from habitat protection to more active and direct manipulation of nests and the nesting environment. Based on our results, we suggest a three-pronged approach to sea turtle conservation in light of climate change, where managers and researchers should: 1) enhance sea turtle resilience to climate change by mitigating other threats; 2) prioritise implementing the 'no regret' and 'reversible' management strategies identified here; and 3) fill the knowledge gaps identified to aid the trial and implementation of the potential strategies identified here. By combining these three approaches our collective toolkit of sea turtle management strategies will expand, giving us an array of viable approaches to implement as climate change impacts become more extreme. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Ban N.C.,Fisheries Center | Ban N.C.,James Cook University | Alidina H.M.,WWF Canada | Ardron J.A.,Pacific Marine Analysis and Research Association
Marine Policy

Analysis of cumulative human impacts in the marine environment is still in its infancy but developing rapidly. In this study, existing approaches were expanded upon, aiming for a realistic consideration of cumulative impacts at a regional scale. Thirty-eight human activities were considered, with each broken down according to stressor types and a range of spatial influences. To add to the policy relevance, existing stressors within and outside of conservation areas were compared. Results indicate the entire continental shelf of Canada's Pacific marine waters is affected by multiple human activities at some level. Commercial fishing, land-based activities and marine transportation accounted for 57.0%, 19.1%, and 17.7% of total cumulative impacts, respectively. Surprisingly, most areas with conservation designations contained higher impact scores than the mean values of their corresponding ecoregions. Despite recent advances in mapping cumulative impacts, many limitations remain. Nonetheless, preliminary analyses such as these can provide information relevant to precautionary management and conservation efforts. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Drever C.R.,06 250 City Center Ave | Snider J.,WWF Canada | Drever M.C.,University of British Columbia
Canadian Journal of Forest Research

Our objective was to assess the relative rarity and representation within protected areas of Standard Forest Units (SFUs) in northeastern Ontario by applying the concepts of geographic range, habitat specificity, and local population size. SFUs are stand type classifications, routinely employed by forest managers, based on tree composition, disturbance history, and prescribed silvicultural system. We identified several SFUs as rare because of a narrow distribution, association with only one landform type, or lack of at least one stand larger than an ecoregion-specific threshold. In the Boreal forest, rare SFUs comprised stands dominated by eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), or eastern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.). Rare SFUs also included eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and (or) red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) leading stands managed by shelterwood or seed tree silviculture as well as low-lying deciduous stands and selection-managed stands of shade-tolerant species. In the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest, rare SFUs were yellow birch stands, stands dominated by conifer species abundant in the Boreal, and shelterwood-managed hardwood stands. Several rare SFUs had <12% of their total area in protection, i.e., stands dominated by eastern white pine, yellow birch, eastern white pine-red oak, or eastern white-cedar. These rare stand types require increased protection in reserves and tailored silvicultural practices to maintain their probability of persistence. Source

Davies R.W.D.,WWF International | Rangeley R.,WWF Canada
Marine Policy

Demand for wild (non-farmed) seafood is increasingly reliant upon a natural capital base that is rapidly diminishing. Despite this, studies show that changes in management could increase fisheries' profitability whilst also protecting fish stocks. This premise is approached by looking specifically at north Atlantic cod-a species that has collapsed in many regions but with evidence to suggest it has the biological potential to recover, despite concerns about altered ecological niches and changing oceanic conditions. The key issue is how the potential economic benefits of cod recovery can provide the fishing sector with incentives for change and how these can be translated into a case for investment, given the financially difficult transition period that currently inhibits fisheries reform. In examining this, the paper concludes that repayable financial investments and rights-based management, tailored to local situations, are required to create resilient and diverse ecosystems that underpin improved seafood economies. It is essential, however, that management and policy solutions adopt a holistic ecosystem-based management approach. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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