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Washington, DC, United States

Payn T.,Scion Research | Carnus J.-M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Kimberley M.,Scion Research | Kollert W.,FAO | And 5 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2015

This paper focuses on an analysis of planted forests data from the 2015 Forests Resources Assessment of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organisation (FRA 2015). It forms one of a series of papers in the FRA 2015 special issue of this journal. While total forest area decreased from 4.28 billion hectares to 3.99 billion hectares from 1990 to 2015, with percent global forest cover dropping from 31.85% to 30.85%, the area of planted forests increased from 167.5 to 277.9 million hectares or 4.06% to 6.95% of total forest area. Increase was most rapid in the temperate zone, and regionally in East Asia, followed by Europe, North America, and Southern and Southeast Asia. However the annualised rate of increase in area of planted forests slowed in the 2010-2015 period to 1.2%, below the 2.4% rate suggested is needed to supply all of the world's timber and fibre needs. The majority of planted forests comprised native species with only 18-19% of the total area being of introduced species. Introduced species were dominant in the southern hemisphere countries of South America, Oceania and Eastern and Southern Africa where industrial forestry is dominant. Twenty countries accounted for 85% of planted forest area and a different 20 countries for 87% of planted forest roundwood supply. As with forest area, roundwood supply from planted forests also showed an increasing trend although this was based on minimal data. There was a mismatch in composition and rankings of the top 20 countries with top forest area and roundwood production suggesting that there are substantial opportunities to increase roundwood production in the future, especially in China which has the largest area but is currently ranked 3rd in roundwood production. Outlook statements were developed for the FAO sub regions based on past changes in planted forest area, population growth, and climate and forest health risks to identify key issues for the future. The overall view from this study suggests that climate impacts, especially from extreme climatic events will affect planted forests in the future and that forest health impacts can also be expected to increase. Outlooks vary regionally. Europe and North America are likely to be most concerned with climate and health risks; Asia will experience population pressure that will impact on land availability for new forests and risks from extreme weather events, and will need to make the most of its existing forests; Africa will need to increase planted forest area to offset continuing deforestation and rapid population growth; and Oceania, the Caribbean, Central and South America are likely to be most concerned with climate impacts. To ensure the continued contribution of planted forests, a number of responses will be required to both maintain existing and also to develop new forests. Intensification of production in existing forests will lessen the need for greater forest areas and offset any land use conflicts related to food security; climate adaptation strategies will need to be developed as a matter of urgency, and forest health focus must remain a priority for research. Establishment of new forests will be eased through greater community and stakeholder engagement. Application of models such as WWF's New Generation Plantations, which recognises the importance of society and the need to consider the full range of forest products and services within the wider landscape and spectrum of land uses, will be important. We recommend that to enable deeper analysis related to planted forests future FRA Assessments consider ways to better gather data specific to planted forests such as productivity so that this important component of global forests can be better understood. © 2015. Source


Sunarto,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Kelly M.J.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Klenzendorf S.,WWF | Vaughan M.R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 3 more authors.
ORYX | Year: 2013

Information on spatial and temporal variation in abundance is crucial for effective management of wildlife. Yet abundance estimates for the Critically Endangered Sumatran tiger Panthera tigris sumatrae are lacking from Riau, the province historically believed to hold the largest percentage of this subspecies. Recently, this area has had one of the highest global rates of deforestation. Using camera traps we investigated tiger abundance across peatland, flat lowland, and hilly lowland forest types in the province, and over time, in the newly established Tesso Nilo National Park, central Sumatra. We estimated densities using spatially explicit capture-recapture, calculated with DENSITY, and traditional capture-recapture models, calculated with CAPTURE. With spatially explicit capture-recapture the lowest tiger density (0.34 ± SE 0.24 per 100 km2) was estimated in the hilly lowland forest of Rimbang Baling and the highest (0.87 ± SE 0.33 per 100 km2) in the flat lowland forest of the Park. Repeated surveys in the Park documented densities of 0.63 ± SE 0.28 in 2005 to 0.87 ± SE 0.33 per 100 km2 in 2008. Compared to traditional capture-recapture the spatially explicit capture-recapture approach resulted in estimates 50% lower. Estimates of tiger density from this study were lower than most previous estimates in other parts of Sumatra. High levels of human activity in the area appear to limit tigers. The results of this study, which covered areas and habitat types not previously surveyed, are important for overall population estimates across the island, provide insight into the response of carnivores to habitat loss, and are relevant to the interventions needed to save the tiger. Copyright © Fauna & Flora International 2013. Source


Gond V.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Freycon V.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Molino J.-F.,IRD Montpellier | Brunaux O.,ONF | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation | Year: 2011

Detecting broad scale spatial patterns across the South American rainforest biome is still a major challenge. Although several countries do possess their own, more or less detailed land-cover map, these are based on classifications that appear largely discordant from a country to another. Up to now, continental scale remote sensing studies failed to fill this gap. They mostly result in crude representations of the rainforest biome as a single, uniform vegetation class, in contrast with open vegetations. A few studies identified broad scale spatial patterns, but only when they managed to map a particular forest characteristic such as biomass. The main objective of this study is to identify, characterize and map distinct forest landscape types within the evergreen lowland rainforest at the sub-continental scale of the Guiana Shield (north-east tropical South-America 10° North-2° South; 66° West-50° West). This study is based on the analysis of a 1-year daily data set (from January 1st to December 31st, 2000) from the VEGETATION sensor onboard the SPOT-4 satellite (1-km spatial resolution). We interpreted remotely sensed landscape classes (RSLC) from field and high resolution remote sensing data of 21 sites in French Guiana. We cross-analyzed remote sensing data, field observations and environmental data using multivariate analysis. We obtained 33 remotely sensed landscape classes (RSLC) among which five forest-RSLC representing 78% of the forested area. The latter were classified as different broad forest landscape types according to a gradient of canopy openness. Their mapping revealed a new and meaningful broad-scale spatial pattern of forest landscape types. At the scale of the Guiana Shield, we observed a spatial patterns similarity between climatic and forest landscape types. The two most open forest-RSLCs were observed mainly within the north-west to south-east dry belt. The three other forest-RSLCs were observed in wetter and less anthropized areas, particularly in the newly recognized "Guianan dense forest arch". Better management and conservation policies, as well as improvement of biological and ecological knowledge, require accurate and stable representations of the geographical components of ecosystems. Our results represent a decisive step in this way for the Guiana Shield area and contribute to fill one of the major shortfall in the knowledge of tropical forests. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sak B.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Petrzelkova K.J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Petrzelkova K.J.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Kvetonova D.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates.Aims:To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic.Results:We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%), Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3) (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0%) and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5%) in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%). In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%), G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5%) and C. muris TS03 (0.5%).Conclusion:Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best practice guidelines for all sites where increased human-gorilla contact occurs. © 2013 Sak et al. Source


Janatova M.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Albrechtova K.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | Petrzelkova K.J.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Petrzelkova K.J.,University of Veterinary And Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno | And 11 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2014

Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide concern of public health. Unfortunately, resistant bacteria are spreading to all ecosystems, including the strictly protected ones. We investigated antimicrobial resistance in gastrointestinal Enterobacteriaceae of wild mammals and people living within Dzangha-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic, with an emphasis on extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. We compare resistance genes found in microbiota of humans, gorillas habituated and unhabituated to humans and other wildlife. In gorillas, we additionally investigate the presence of ESBL resistant isolates after treatment by ceftiofur. We found a considerable prevalence of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates with ESBL and PMQR genes in humans (10% and 31%, respectively). Among wildlife the most significant findings were CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a habituated gorilla and a multiresistant Escherichia coli isolate with gene qepA in an unhabituated gorilla. Other isolates from wildlife were mostly represented by qnrB-harboring Citrobacter spp. The relatedness of resistant E. coli was investigated in a PFGE-based dendrogram; isolates from gorillas showed less than 80% similarity to each other and less than 80% similarity to human isolates. No ESBL-producing isolates were found in animals treated by ceftiofur. Although we did not detect any bacterial clone common to wildlife and humans, we detected an intersection in the spectrum of resistance genes found in humans and gorillas, represented by blaCTX-M-15 and qepA. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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