WVU Eye Institute

Morgantown, WV, United States

WVU Eye Institute

Morgantown, WV, United States
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PubMed | WVU Pediatrics and WVU Infectious Diseases and WVU Eye Institute
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Year: 2016

We report a case of toxoplasmosis with bilateral maculopathy in a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) at age 6. AT manifests as ataxia, apraxia, telangiectasia, and dysarthria. Common ophthalmologic findings in AT include fine conjunctival telangiectasia. Patients also suffer from recurrent sinopulmonary infections; however, serious opportunistic infection is rarely diagnosed. At 8years of age he developed disseminated Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis) infection and meningoencephalitis. This ophthalmologic finding and the subsequent toxoplasmosis meningoencephalitis have not been previously reported in AT.


Bhattacharya N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Mukherjee N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,WVU Eye Institute | And 6 more authors.
Annals of Surgical Oncology | Year: 2013

Background. MCPH1 is a proximal regulator of DNA damage response pathway that is involved in recruitment of phosphorylated ATM to double-stranded DNA breaks. Methods. To understand the importance of MCPH1 and ATM in deregulation of DNA damage response pathway in breast carcinoma, we studied m-RNA expression and genetic/epigenetic alterations of these genes in primary breast carcinoma samples. Results. Our study revealed reduced expression (mRNA/ protein) and high alterations (deletion/methylation) (96 %, 121 of 126) of MCPH1 and ATM. Mutation was, however, rare in inactivation of MCPH1. In immunohistochemical analysis, reduced protein expression of MCPH1, ATM and p-ATM were concordant with their molecular alterations (P = 0.03-0.01). Alterations of MCPH1 and deletion of ATM were significantly high in estrogen/progesterone receptor-negative than estrogen/ progesterone receptor-positive breast carcinoma samples compared to early or late age of onset tumors, indicating differences in pathogenesis of the molecular subtypes (P = 0.004-0.01). These genes also showed differential association with tumor stage, grade and lymph node status in different subtypes of breast carcinoma (P = 0.00001-0.01). Their coalterations showed significant association with tumor progression and prognosis (P = 0.003-0.05). Interestingly, patients with alterations of these genes or MCPH1 alone had poor outcome after treatment with DNA-interacting drugs and/or radiation (P = 0.01-0.05). Conclusions. Inactivation of MCPH1-ATM-associated DNA damage response pathway might have an important role in the development of breast carcinoma with diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications. © Society of Surgical Oncology 2012.


Bailey J.N.C.,Vanderbilt University | Bailey J.N.C.,Case Western Reserve University | Yaspan B.L.,Vanderbilt University | Yaspan B.L.,Genentech | And 34 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Using genome-wide association single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment study and National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration comprising 3,108 cases and 3,430 controls, we assessed biologic pathways as annotated in the KEGG database for association with risk of POAG. After correction for genic overlap among pathways, we found 4 pathways, butanoate metabolism (hsa00650), hematopoietic cell lineage (hsa04640), lysine degradation (hsa00310) and basal transcription factors (hsa03022) related to POAG with permuted p < 0.001. In addition, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene family was significantly associated with POAG (p < 0.001). In the POAG subset with normal-pressure glaucoma (NPG), the butanoate metabolism pathway was also significantly associated (p < 0.001) as well as the MAPK and Hedgehog signaling pathways (hsa04010 and hsa04340), glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparan sulfate pathway (hsa00534) and the phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathway (hsa0400). The butanoate metabolism pathway overall, and specifically the aspects of the pathway that contribute to GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism, was the only pathway significantly associated with both POAG and NPG. Collectively these results implicate GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism in glaucoma pathogenesis, and suggest new potential therapeutic targets. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Mitra S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Indra D.M.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Bhattacharya N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer | Year: 2010

To understand the importance of frequent deletion of 3p22.3 in cervical carcinogenesis, alterations (deletion/methylation/expression) of the candidate genes STAC, MLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3, located in the region, were analyzed in 24 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 137 uterine cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples. In CIN, RBSP3 deletion (48%) and methylation (26%) were high compared with the other genes (4-9%). In CACX, alterations of these genes were as follows: deletion: STAC (54%) > MLH1 (46%) > RBSP3 (45%) > ITGA9 (41%), methylation: RBSP3 (25%) > ITGA9 (24%) > STAC (19%) > MLH1 (13%). Overall, alterations of RBSP3 showed association with CIN, whereas for STAC and MLH1, this frequency increased significantly from CIN → Stage I/II and for ITGA9 from CIN → Stage I/II and also from Stage I/II → Stage III/IV. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis showed differential reduced expression of these genes in CACX concordant to their molecular alterations. The more active RBSP3B splice variant was underexpressed in CACX. RB1 was infrequently deleted in CACX. Concordance was seen between (i) inactivation of RBSP3 and intense p-RB1 nuclear immunostaining and (ii) low/absence of MLH1 expression and its molecular alterations in CACX. In normal cervical epithelium, p-RB1 immunostaining was low in differentiated cells, whereas MLH1 staining was seen in both nucleus and cytoplasm irrespective of differentiation stage. Alterations of the genes were significantly associated with poor prognosis. High parity (≥5)/early sexual debut (≤19 years) coupled with RBSP3 alterations/RB1 deletion predicted worst prognosis. Thus, inactivation of RBSP3 might be one of the early events in cervical carcinogenesis. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


PubMed | Regional Eye Associates, Riverside Methodist Hospital, West Virginia University and WVU Eye Institute
Type: | Journal: GMS ophthalmology cases | Year: 2016

Ocular ischemic syndrome is a rare blinding condition generally caused by disease of the carotid artery. We describe a 69-year-old female with a 50 pack-year smoking history with aortic arch syndrome causing bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome.The patient presented with progressive visual loss and temple pain. Slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed bilateral iris neovascularization. This finding prompted a cardiovascular work up. Panretinal photocoagulation with retrobulbar block was performed in the right eye.A temporal artery biopsy was negative. The carotid duplex ultrasound showed only a 1-39% stenosis. MRA revealed a more proximal occlusion of the aortic branch for which she underwent subclavian carotid bypass surgery. At the one month follow up, the right eye suffered profound vision loss secondary to a central retinal artery occlusion.Ocular neovascularization may be one of the clinical manifestations of aortic arch syndrome. This case also illustrates the limitations of relying solely on carotid duplex ultrasound testing. We caution against overly aggressive panretinal photocoagulation utilizing retrobulbar anesthesia.


Mazumder D.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Mitra S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,WVU Eye Institute | Dutta S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

To understand the importance of frequent deletion of chromosomal 11q23.3-24.3 region in cervical carcinogenesis, alterations (deletion/ methylation/mutation/expression) of the candidate genes LOH11CR2A, EI24 and CHEK1 located in the region were analyzed in 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 112 cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples and two CACX cell lines. The deletion frequency of these genes was low in CIN than in CACX [CIN: CHEK1: 28%, EI24: 21%, LOH11CR2A: 15% and CACX: CHEK1: 51%, EI24: 41%, LOH11CR2A: 36%]. Similar trend was seen in promoter methylation of these genes [CIN: CHEK1: 10%, EI24: 3%, LOH11CR2A: 3% and CACX: CHEK1: 55%, EI24: 31%, LOH11CR2A: 14%]. Mutations of the genes are a rare event. Overall alterations (deletion and methylation) of CHEK1 and EI24 were associated with progression of CACX. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis showed reduced expression of the three genes in concordance to their molecular alterations. A shorter isoform of CHEK1 lacking exon 8, hence impaired in substrate binding capacity, was found in two samples. Immunohistochemical analysis showed nuclear expression of Chek1, p-Chek1 and Ei24 in tumor tissues, whereas the cell lines exhibited both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Chek1 and Ei24, as is also evident from Western blot analysis suggesting differential localization of the proteins. Alterations of CHEK1 and EI24 coupled with tumor stage and early sexual debut (≤19 years) predicted worst prognosis. Thus, our data suggest that inactivation of EI24 and CHEK1 through two independent mechanisms contributes to the development of CACX. © Copyright 2010 UICC.


Sinha S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Sinha S.,WVU Eye Institute | Singh R.K.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,WVU Eye Institute | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2011

To understand the importance of frequent deletions at chromosome 11q24.1-24.2 region in breast carcinoma, alterations (deletion/methylation) of the candidate genes LOH11CR2A, ROBO3, ROBO4, HEPACAM, PIG8 and CHEK1 located in this region were analyzed in 106 breast carcinoma samples. Among these genes, LOH11CR2A showed highest frequency of deletion (56%), followed by PIG8 (35%), CHEK1 (31%) and ROBO3/. ROBO4/. HEPACAM loci (28%). Comparable frequency of promoter methylation (26-35%) was observed for LOH11CR2A, CHEK1 and PIG8. Overall alterations (deletion/methylation) of these genes were in the following order: LOH11CR2A (60%) > PIG8 (46%) > CHEK1 (41%) and showed significant association with each other. Breast carcinoma samples that were estrogen/progesterone receptor negative showed significantly high deletion and overall alterations than estrogen/progesterone receptor positive samples for LOH11CR2A, CHEK1 and PIG8. The methylation and overall alteration of LOH11CR2A were significantly associated with tumor stages in breast carcinoma. However, in early/late onset and estrogen/progesterone receptor positive/negative breast carcinoma, the overall alterations of LOH11CR2A, PIG8 and CHEK1 were differentially associated with advanced stages, tumor grade and lymph node metastasis. Alterations of PIG8 and CHEK1 were significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with early age of onset of the disease indicating significant prognostic importance. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis detected reduced expression of the genes in the order LOH11CR2A > CHEK1 > PIG8. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced protein expression of PIG8 and CHEK1 that was concordant with their molecular alterations. Thus, our study suggests that LOH11CR2A, PIG8 and CHEK1 are candidate tumor suppressor genes associated with breast carcinoma and have significant clinical as well as prognostic importance. © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.


Posokhova E.,University of Minnesota | Song H.,West Virginia University | Belcastro M.,West Virginia University | Higgins L.,University of Minnesota | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2011

Type II Chaperonin Containing TCP-1 (CCT, also known as TCP-1 Ring Complex, TRiC) is a multi-subunit molecular machine thought to assist in the folding of ∼10% of newly translated cytosolic proteins in eukaryotes. A number of proteins folded by CCT have been identified in yeast and cultured mammalian cells, however, the function of this chaperonin in vivo has never been addressed. Here we demonstrate that suppressing the CCT activity in mouse photoreceptors by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative mutant of the CCT cofactor, phosducin-like protein (PhLP), results in the malformation of the outer segment, a cellular compartment responsible for light detection, and triggers rapid retinal degeneration. Investigation of the underlying causes by quantitative proteomics identified distinct protein networks, encompassing ∼200 proteins, which were significantly affected by the chaperonin deficiency. Notably among those were several essential proteins crucially engaged in structural support and visual signaling of the outer segment such as peripherin 2, Rom1, rhodopsin, transducin, and PDE6. These data for the first time demonstrate that normal CCT function is ultimately required for the morphogenesis and survival of sensory neurons of the retina, and suggest the chaperonin CCT deficiency as a potential, yet unexplored, cause of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Mazumder D.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,WVU Eye Institute | Mitra S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2011

Objective: The study was aimed at understanding the complex interactions of genetic and epigenetic events in expression of HPV16 E6/E7 and progression of cervical carcinoma. For this, expression of E6/E7 was done in 36 samples, along with the physical status, methylation and LCR sequence variations. Later, the genetic and epigenetic studies were extended to 239 samples to find out the association of these factors with progression of cervical cancer. Methods: E6/E7 expression was quantified by real-time PCR. Physical status of HPV16 was determined by mutiplex-PCR of whole E2 ORF using overlapping primers and E6 ORF and validated by real-time PCR. Methylation status of P97 promoter/enhancer was analyzed by methylation sensitive restriction analysis (MSRA). Viral lineage and variations in LCR was ascertained by sequencing LCR/E6/E7 ORFs. Results: Samples with episomal unmethylated virus showed comparatively high expression of E6/E7 than episomal methylated, integrated unmethylated and integrated methylated forms of HPV16. Variations in the LCR, particularly in the binding sites of negatively regulating transcription factors, also contribute to high expression of E6/E7. The integrated form significantly increases with decrease of episomal form during tumor progression. Methylation of the promoter/enhancer gradually decreased with tumor progression and is inversely correlated to integration. Two novel variants were observed in E6 gene in European- and North-American-1-lineages. Log-rank test revealed better prognosis of the patients with episomal methylated HPV16 compared to the other forms. Conclusion: Our results show higher expression of E6/E7 in samples with episomal unmethylated virus having sequence variations in LCR. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Mukherjee N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Bhattacharya N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Sinha S.,WVU Eye Institute | Alam N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Markers | Year: 2011

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and mutated in colorectal cancer (MCC) genes are key regulatory genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which are independently involved in maintaining low levels of β-catenin in the cell. In addition to genetic and epigenetic alterations, some genetic polymorphisms in the genes associated with the Wnt signaling pathway have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of cancer, including breast cancer. In the present study we analyzed the association of genotype and haplotype status of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs2229992 and rs11283943, in the APC and MCC genes, respectively, with an increased risk of breast carcinogenesis in a breast cancer and control population from eastern India. We observed a signifcant association of the rs11283943 SNP with increased breast cancer risk. Two specifc haplotypes involving the minor allele of rs11283943 were found to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a signifcant association of the 2-2 genotype (genotype homozygous for the rs11283943 minor allele) with decreased survival (p=0.045) of the breast cancer patients in our study, in particular patients with early-onset BC. © 2011 Wichtig Editore.

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