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Bailey J.N.C.,Vanderbilt University | Bailey J.N.C.,Case Western Reserve University | Yaspan B.L.,Vanderbilt University | Yaspan B.L.,Genentech | And 34 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Using genome-wide association single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment study and National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration comprising 3,108 cases and 3,430 controls, we assessed biologic pathways as annotated in the KEGG database for association with risk of POAG. After correction for genic overlap among pathways, we found 4 pathways, butanoate metabolism (hsa00650), hematopoietic cell lineage (hsa04640), lysine degradation (hsa00310) and basal transcription factors (hsa03022) related to POAG with permuted p < 0.001. In addition, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene family was significantly associated with POAG (p < 0.001). In the POAG subset with normal-pressure glaucoma (NPG), the butanoate metabolism pathway was also significantly associated (p < 0.001) as well as the MAPK and Hedgehog signaling pathways (hsa04010 and hsa04340), glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis-heparan sulfate pathway (hsa00534) and the phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis pathway (hsa0400). The butanoate metabolism pathway overall, and specifically the aspects of the pathway that contribute to GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism, was the only pathway significantly associated with both POAG and NPG. Collectively these results implicate GABA and acetyl-CoA metabolism in glaucoma pathogenesis, and suggest new potential therapeutic targets. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Mazumder D.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Mitra S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,WVU Eye Institute | Dutta S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

To understand the importance of frequent deletion of chromosomal 11q23.3-24.3 region in cervical carcinogenesis, alterations (deletion/ methylation/mutation/expression) of the candidate genes LOH11CR2A, EI24 and CHEK1 located in the region were analyzed in 29 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 112 cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples and two CACX cell lines. The deletion frequency of these genes was low in CIN than in CACX [CIN: CHEK1: 28%, EI24: 21%, LOH11CR2A: 15% and CACX: CHEK1: 51%, EI24: 41%, LOH11CR2A: 36%]. Similar trend was seen in promoter methylation of these genes [CIN: CHEK1: 10%, EI24: 3%, LOH11CR2A: 3% and CACX: CHEK1: 55%, EI24: 31%, LOH11CR2A: 14%]. Mutations of the genes are a rare event. Overall alterations (deletion and methylation) of CHEK1 and EI24 were associated with progression of CACX. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis showed reduced expression of the three genes in concordance to their molecular alterations. A shorter isoform of CHEK1 lacking exon 8, hence impaired in substrate binding capacity, was found in two samples. Immunohistochemical analysis showed nuclear expression of Chek1, p-Chek1 and Ei24 in tumor tissues, whereas the cell lines exhibited both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Chek1 and Ei24, as is also evident from Western blot analysis suggesting differential localization of the proteins. Alterations of CHEK1 and EI24 coupled with tumor stage and early sexual debut (≤19 years) predicted worst prognosis. Thus, our data suggest that inactivation of EI24 and CHEK1 through two independent mechanisms contributes to the development of CACX. © Copyright 2010 UICC. Source


Mitra S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Indra D.M.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Bhattacharya N.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 7 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer | Year: 2010

To understand the importance of frequent deletion of 3p22.3 in cervical carcinogenesis, alterations (deletion/methylation/expression) of the candidate genes STAC, MLH1, ITGA9, and RBSP3, located in the region, were analyzed in 24 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 137 uterine cervical carcinoma (CACX) samples. In CIN, RBSP3 deletion (48%) and methylation (26%) were high compared with the other genes (4-9%). In CACX, alterations of these genes were as follows: deletion: STAC (54%) > MLH1 (46%) > RBSP3 (45%) > ITGA9 (41%), methylation: RBSP3 (25%) > ITGA9 (24%) > STAC (19%) > MLH1 (13%). Overall, alterations of RBSP3 showed association with CIN, whereas for STAC and MLH1, this frequency increased significantly from CIN → Stage I/II and for ITGA9 from CIN → Stage I/II and also from Stage I/II → Stage III/IV. Quantitative mRNA expression analysis showed differential reduced expression of these genes in CACX concordant to their molecular alterations. The more active RBSP3B splice variant was underexpressed in CACX. RB1 was infrequently deleted in CACX. Concordance was seen between (i) inactivation of RBSP3 and intense p-RB1 nuclear immunostaining and (ii) low/absence of MLH1 expression and its molecular alterations in CACX. In normal cervical epithelium, p-RB1 immunostaining was low in differentiated cells, whereas MLH1 staining was seen in both nucleus and cytoplasm irrespective of differentiation stage. Alterations of the genes were significantly associated with poor prognosis. High parity (≥5)/early sexual debut (≤19 years) coupled with RBSP3 alterations/RB1 deletion predicted worst prognosis. Thus, inactivation of RBSP3 might be one of the early events in cervical carcinogenesis. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Posokhova E.,University of Minnesota | Song H.,West Virginia University | Belcastro M.,West Virginia University | Higgins L.,University of Minnesota | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2011

Type II Chaperonin Containing TCP-1 (CCT, also known as TCP-1 Ring Complex, TRiC) is a multi-subunit molecular machine thought to assist in the folding of ∼10% of newly translated cytosolic proteins in eukaryotes. A number of proteins folded by CCT have been identified in yeast and cultured mammalian cells, however, the function of this chaperonin in vivo has never been addressed. Here we demonstrate that suppressing the CCT activity in mouse photoreceptors by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative mutant of the CCT cofactor, phosducin-like protein (PhLP), results in the malformation of the outer segment, a cellular compartment responsible for light detection, and triggers rapid retinal degeneration. Investigation of the underlying causes by quantitative proteomics identified distinct protein networks, encompassing ∼200 proteins, which were significantly affected by the chaperonin deficiency. Notably among those were several essential proteins crucially engaged in structural support and visual signaling of the outer segment such as peripherin 2, Rom1, rhodopsin, transducin, and PDE6. These data for the first time demonstrate that normal CCT function is ultimately required for the morphogenesis and survival of sensory neurons of the retina, and suggest the chaperonin CCT deficiency as a potential, yet unexplored, cause of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source


Mazumder D.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | Singh R.K.,WVU Eye Institute | Mitra S.,Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2011

Objective: The study was aimed at understanding the complex interactions of genetic and epigenetic events in expression of HPV16 E6/E7 and progression of cervical carcinoma. For this, expression of E6/E7 was done in 36 samples, along with the physical status, methylation and LCR sequence variations. Later, the genetic and epigenetic studies were extended to 239 samples to find out the association of these factors with progression of cervical cancer. Methods: E6/E7 expression was quantified by real-time PCR. Physical status of HPV16 was determined by mutiplex-PCR of whole E2 ORF using overlapping primers and E6 ORF and validated by real-time PCR. Methylation status of P97 promoter/enhancer was analyzed by methylation sensitive restriction analysis (MSRA). Viral lineage and variations in LCR was ascertained by sequencing LCR/E6/E7 ORFs. Results: Samples with episomal unmethylated virus showed comparatively high expression of E6/E7 than episomal methylated, integrated unmethylated and integrated methylated forms of HPV16. Variations in the LCR, particularly in the binding sites of negatively regulating transcription factors, also contribute to high expression of E6/E7. The integrated form significantly increases with decrease of episomal form during tumor progression. Methylation of the promoter/enhancer gradually decreased with tumor progression and is inversely correlated to integration. Two novel variants were observed in E6 gene in European- and North-American-1-lineages. Log-rank test revealed better prognosis of the patients with episomal methylated HPV16 compared to the other forms. Conclusion: Our results show higher expression of E6/E7 in samples with episomal unmethylated virus having sequence variations in LCR. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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