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Mo J.J.,Guangdong Ocean University | Liang J.X.,Guangdong Ocean University | Liu C.L.,Guangdong Ocean University | Lv S.L.,Guangdong Ocean University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2015

Peroxidases (PODs) are involved in many plant disease defence responses. Twenty-eight varieties of Colocasia esculenta (taro), with varying degrees of resistance to leaf blight disease caused by Phytophthora colocasiae, were used to assess the possible role of phenolic compounds in resistance to the disease. Total soluble phenolic compound (TSPC) concentrations were negatively correlated with mean lesion diameter (MLD); however, ester-bound phenolic compound (EBPC) concentrations were positively correlated with MLD. Degenerate primers were designed to amplify partial genomic sequences of POD genes, and high-tail PCR was used to clone the flanking sequences from a taro variety that was immune to P. colocasiae with the highest TSPC concentration, in order to obtain a full-length sequence of a taro POD gene. The cloned gene contained the complete open reading frame as well as 5'-upstream and 3'-downstream sequences. It contained four exons, as well as the predicted transcription start site and the poly(A) tail signal. Expression of the taro POD gene (GenBank Accession No. KJ591051) increased more rapidly in an incompatible interaction than in a compatible interaction with P. colocasiae based on real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). © 2015, Headley Brothers Ltd. All rights reserved.

Li Z.-G.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Tian C.-Y.,Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography | Zhang R.-H.,Wuhan Vegetable Research Institute | Mohamed I.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | And 5 more authors.
Catena | Year: 2015

A cotton field experiment was conducted to study the effects of plastic film mulching cultivation (PC) and non-mulching cultivation (NPC) on soil carbon content of an Aridisol, classified as a typic natrargid, in Xinjiang Uygher Autonomous Region, China. The use of PC enhanced the stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) at depths of 0-30cm, but not at depths of 30-70cm, compared with NPC. Furthermore, PC enhanced the stock of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) at depths of 30-70cm but not at 0-30cm. Overall, PC increased the total carbon (TC) stock at depths of 0-70cm. The TC stock was higher in PC (16.37kgCm-2year-1) than in NPC (15.89kgCm-2year-1). The contribution percentage of SIC (52%) to the net soil carbon (C) accumulation was higher than that of SOC (48%). Our results suggested that adoption of PC could be used as an effective way to increase the carbon sequestration of soils under cotton systems in arid areas. © 2015.

Gu C.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Gu C.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Liu Y.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Liu D.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural Science | And 7 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2016

Elevated levels of heavy metals in sediments of irrigation channels can pose risks for crops and livestock, as well as for human health. In this study sediment samples were collected from the irrigation channel in a typical rural area of south China, and digested, in order to analyze their contents for the presence of heavy metals Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni, as well as the non-metal As, to assess total concentrations and pollution levels. The pollution load index and potential ecological risk index of these elements were utilized to assess contamination levels and ecotoxicity. Our results showed that the concentrations of the 7 elements were in the order of Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > As > Pb > Cd. With the exception of Cr and Pb, concentrations of elements were higher than their background in soil, especially for Cd (1.79 mg kg-1), As (99.61 mg kg-1) and Ni (142.62 mg kg-1), which were 18.49, 8.89 and 5.30 times their background concentrations, respectively. The whole sampled zone was characterized by medium pollution and had a very high potential ecological risk. The area of arable land presented a medium pollution risk, while areas near to the path or road showed high risk of pollution. The predominant contributors to elevated ecological risk for the whole zone were Cd and As. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Zhang R.-H.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Zhang R.-H.,Wuhan Vegetable Research Institute | Duan Z.-Q.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Li Z.-G.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden
Pedosphere | Year: 2012

The aim of this research was to evaluate weathered spent mushroom substrate (SMS), made from spent Flammulina velutipes mushroom substrate, as a growing medium for nursery seedlings. Two vegetable species, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinchun No. 2) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Mandy), were grown in 8 media of SMS in various ratios with perlite or vermiculite. A mixed substrate of peat with perlite (1:1; v:v) was used as the control (CK). The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions. Prior to sowing, some physical and chemical properties of the growing media were determined. Results showed that all the mixtures had desirable physical and chemical properties for their use in nursery tomato and cucumber seedlings except for the T4 (SMS:vermiculite = 1:1; v:v) and the T8 (SMS:perlite = 2:1; v:v) mixtures. Compared with the CK, increased plant height, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight and index of seedling quality were found in the T3 (SMS:vermiculite = 2:1; v:v) and T6 (SMS:perlite = 4:1; v:v) growing media. SMS should be considered as an alternative for the widely used but expensive and resource-limited peat in greenhouse cultivation. © 2012 Soil Science Society of China.

Yin H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shakeel M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Kuang J.,Wuhan Vegetable Research Institute | Li J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Melanism is a common polymorphism in many insect species that also influences immune function. According to the thermal melanin hypothesis, ectothermic individuals from cooler environments have darker cuticles and higher polyphenol oxidase (PO) levels, which represent a better immunocompetence. In this study, the links among environmental temperature, melanism, and PO activity of Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) were examined. Most S. procerus have a black spot on their forewings at high temperatures in the field and in the laboratory. In PO activity assay, a positive association between PO level and temperature was found. Our results showed that a diversification of melanism occurred under different temperatures and that melanism in S. procerus presented an opposite pattern to the one proposed by the thermal hypothesis. © 2015 Yin et al.

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