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Wei M.,Hubei Engineering University | Wei M.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Tong Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Wang H.,Jianghan University | And 3 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

Development of efficient pretreatment methods which can disrupt the peripheral lignocellulose and even the parenchyma cells is of great importance for production of diosgenin from turmeric rhizomes. It was found that low pressure steam expansion pretreatment (LSEP) could improve the diosgenin yield by more than 40% compared with the case without pretreatment, while simultaneously increasing the production of fermentable sugar by 27.37%. Furthermore, little inhibitory compounds were produced in LSEP process which was extremely favorable for the subsequent biotransformation of fermentable sugar to other valuable products such as ethanol. Preliminary study showed that the ethanol yield when using the fermentable sugar as carbon source was comparable to that using glucose. The liquid residue of LSEP treated turmeric tuber after diosgenin production can be utilized as a quality fermentable carbon source. Therefore, LSEP has great potential in industrial application in diosgenin clean production and comprehensive utilization of turmeric tuber. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yang Q.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Yang Q.,Central China Normal University | Jin W.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Jin W.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics | And 10 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2016

Context: Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), most commonly known as "maca", has been used as a food or folk medicine to improve vitality in Peru. Previous research demonstrated that lipid-soluble extract from maca improved swimming endurance capacity. Macamides are considered the typical lipid-soluble markers for maca and proved to have several pharmacological properties, such as improving sexual performance and neuroprotective activies.Objective: The present study investigates the effects of macamides on endurance capacity and anti-fatigue property in prolonged swimming mice.Materials and methods: The Balb/c mice were divided into seven groups: a control group, low-dose groups of N-benzyllinoleamide, N-benzyloleamide, and N-benzylpalmitamide, high-dose groups of these macamides. The macamides groups received the commercial products (12 and 40 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received vehicle for 21 d. On the 14th day, the mice were given the weight-loaded swimming test. On the 21st day, the mice were sacrificed immediately after 90 min swimming, and some biochemical parameters were measured.Results and discussion: Compared with the control group, exhaustive swimming time was significantly prolonged in high-dose group of N-benzyloleamide (p < 0.05); the levels of lactic acid (LD), blood ammonia (BA), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas the levels of liver glycogen (LG) and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in high-dose group of N-benzyloleamide. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the brain, muscle, and liver were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities in the brain, muscle, and liver were significantly increased in high-dose group of N-benzyloleamide (p < 0.05).Conclusion: The results indicate that N-benzyloleamide has pharmaceutical property against exercise-induced fatigue, and this effect can be explained by the modulated energy metabolism and improved antioxidant status. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Liu H.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Jin W.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Jin W.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics | Jin W.,Wuhan Huashite Industrial Biotechnology Development Co. | And 10 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2015

Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) is a traditional medicine and nutritional supplement from South America with many pharmacological effects, such as enhancing female and male fertility, improving sexual dysfunction, preventing osteoporosis and relieving menopausal syndrome. Until now, the active principles behind most of these effects have not been clarified, severely hindering the exploitation and application of maca products. In this study, the effective anti-osteoporotic components of maca are uncovered. Through virtual screening against estrogen receptor and verification of pharmacological activity on osteoblasts, we found that N-benzyl-palmitamide is an active constituent of maca in preventing osteoporosis. As well, N-benzyl-palmitamide promotes osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization, plus it benefits bone formation through enhanced expression of osteogenesis-related genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2, core binding factor alpha 1, type 1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase. The effects of N-benzyl-palmitamide on enhanced bone formation are very likely through the estrogen receptor pathway, as N-benzyl-palmitamide also increases the expression of ERα and ERβ genes. Clarifying single-component biological activity will greatly enable exploitation and application of maca as a medication and health supplement to prevent osteoporosis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Chen W.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Chen W.,Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics | Chen W.,Wuhan Huashite Industrial Biotechnology Development Co. | Zhou P.-P.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | And 17 more authors.
Algal Research | Year: 2016

A comparison of the glycerol and glucose effect on the fermentation of Schizochytrium sp. S056 indicated that glycerol increased the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration of the total fatty acids to 52.28% which was 31.75% higher than that produced by glucose. The underlying mechanism of the DHA content increase by the glycerol treatment, however, remains to be clarified. Transcriptome analysis was used to study the effect of the carbon source on genetic regulation and metabolism. These results revealed that when Schizochytrium sp. S056 was cultured with glycerol, the glycolysis and branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) metabolism-associated genes were substantially up-regulated, resulting in increased overall acetyl-CoA production. Additionally, genes involved in the gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate and citric acid cycle pathways were significantly down-regulated, resulting in more acetyl-CoA for fatty acid formation. Specifically, the expression of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene, which is involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, was up-regulated by the glycerol-increased production of acetyl-CoA. Accordingly, the enhanced FAS system led to a significant increase of the content of DHA. Therefore, overexpression of the FAS gene favors the accumulation of DHA. Furthermore, these results were also corroborated through the inhibition of the FAS system by cerulenin treatment. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.. Source

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