Leopold H.,Humboldt University of Berlin |
Mendling J.,WU Vienna |
Reijers H.A.,TU Eindhoven |
La Rosa M.,Queensland University of Technology
Information Systems | Year: 2014
The increased adoption of business process management approaches, tools, and practices has led organizations to accumulate large collections of business process models. These collections can easily include from a hundred to a thousand models, especially in the context of multinational corporations or as a result of organizational mergers and acquisitions. A concrete problem is thus how to maintain these large repositories in such a way that their complexity does not hamper their practical usefulness as a means to describe and communicate business operations. This paper proposes a technique to automatically infer suitable names for business process models and fragments thereof. This technique is useful for model abstraction scenarios, as for instance when user-specific views of a repository are required, or as part of a refactoring initiative aimed to simplify the repository's complexity. The technique is grounded in an adaptation of the theory of meaning to the realm of business process models. We implemented the technique in a prototype tool and conducted an extensive evaluation using three process model collections from practice and a case study involving process modelers with different experience. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Leopold H.,Humboldt University of Berlin |
Mendling J.,WU Vienna |
Polyvyanyy A.,Hasso Plattner Institute
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012
Process Modeling is a widely used concept for understanding, documenting and also redesigning the operations of organizations. The validation and usage of process models is however affected by the fact that only business analysts fully understand them in detail. This is in particular a problem because they are typically not domain experts. In this paper, we investigate in how far the concept of verbalization can be adapted from object-role modeling to process models. To this end, we define an approach which automatically transforms BPMN process models into natural language texts and combines different techniques from linguistics and graph decomposition in a flexible and accurate manner. The evaluation of the technique is based on a prototypical implementation and involves a test set of 53 BPMN process models showing that natural language texts can be generated in a reliable fashion. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Fixed Effects and Random Effects Estimation of Higher-order Spatial Autoregressive Models with Spatial Autoregressive and Heteroscedastic Disturbances [Estimation des effets fixes et effets aléatoires de modèles autorégressifs spatiaux dordre supérieur avec perturbations autorégressives et hétéroscédastiques spatiales] [Estimatión de los efectos físicos y los efectos aleatorios de modelos autoregresivos espaciales de orden superior con alteractiones autoregresivas espaciales y heterocedásticas]
Badinger H.,WU Vienna |
Badinger H.,Austrian Institute of Economics Research WIFO |
Egger P.,ETH Zurich
Spatial Economic Analysis | Year: 2015
This paper develops a unified framework for fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) estimation of higher-order spatial autoregressive panel data models with spatial autoregressive disturbances and heteroscedasticity of unknown form in the idiosyncratic error component. We derive the moment conditions and optimal weighting matrix without distributional assumptions for a generalized moments (GM) estimation procedure of the spatial autoregressive parameters of the disturbance process and define both an RE and an FE spatial generalized two-stage least squares estimator for the regression parameters of the model. We prove consistency of the proposed estimators and derive their joint asymptotic distribution, which is robust to heteroscedasticity of unknown form in the idiosyncratic error component. Finally, we derive a robust Hausman test of the spatial random against the spatial FE model. © 2015, © 2015 Regional Studies Association.
Prosser A.,WU Vienna
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy | Year: 2014
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to present and discuss some core issues regarding the transparency of the eVoting process. Apart from the protection of voting secrecy, the possible manipulation of votes, even of the entire election, is one of the key issues in eVoting. Comparatively few Supreme Court rulings are available for eVoting, as it is a new field. Where there are rulings available, they often focus on the case at hand and do not derive general principles. On 3 March 2009, the German Constitutional Court published a ruling on the use of voting terminals from which also general principles can be derived far beyond the case itself. Design/methodology/approach: Apart from the protection of voting secrecy, the possible manipulation of votes, even of the entire election, is one of the key issues in eVoting. Comparatively few Supreme Court rulings are available for eVoting, as it is a new field. Where there are rulings available, they often focus on the case at hand and do not derive general principles. On 3 March 2009, the German Constitutional Court published a ruling on the use of voting terminals from which general principles can also be derived far beyond the case itself. Findings: The paper presented some core issues in eVoting transparency as required by the ruling of the German Constitutional Court. In particular, it suggested a way to define and operationalise the terms "audit chain", "count" and "recount", which arguably represent the core issues in eVoting transparency and auditability. Furthermore, the paper introduced a model to map the key security dimensions in an eVoting system and the degree to which they are fulfilled by technical, not just organisational, means, with auditability being the dimension discussed in this contribution. Research limitations/implications: The paper only considers political elections and starts off the framework and requirements set by the German Constitutional Court. With one exception, these requirements can be seen as rather generic for most Western-style democracies, the exception being observability and auditability of the election by the general public. Practical implications: The paper derives concrete design principles for remote eVoting systems. Originality/value: The paper develops a security framework for remote eVoting from given legal requirements. After an analysis of popular existing eVoting protocols, a generic eVoting protocol is derived satisfying these requirements. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Arikan E.,WU Vienna |
Jammernegg W.,WU Vienna
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2014
Important drivers for environmental sustainability efforts in purchasing and supply management are top management initiatives and compliance with laws and regulations. On the other hand market forces are largely ignored although it is shown that the product carbon footprint contained on the product's eco-label influences the purchasing decisions of consumers if it is disclosed by several companies in an industry. Then the product carbon footprint turns out to be a relevant competitive differentiator, i.e. the company with lower emissions can increase its market share. In this paper we consider the single period inventory model with product carbon footprint constraint. An upper bound for the carbon footprint is specified as a benchmark derived either from the company's environmental target or from an industry standard. In the case of one supply option the optimal order quantity is characterized by a one-sided control limit policy. Especially for high-profit products the environmental constraint is binding thus has a negative impact on the economic performance, i.e. expected profit. If a second supply option exists in the resulting dual sourcing framework with quick response two scenarios with different additional costs and emissions for the second emergency order are considered. In the first scenario for both options the same supplier is used. It applies to an offshore supplier because a fast transportation mode is considered. Here the structure of the optimal first order quantity is a two-sided control-limit policy. In scenario two the second order comes from a different (onshore) supplier. By comparing the fast and the onshore scenario the trade-off between economic (expected profit) and environmental (expected emissions) performances is discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sanchez-Gonzalez L.,University of Castilla - La Mancha |
Garcia F.,University of Castilla - La Mancha |
Ruiz F.,University of Castilla - La Mancha |
Mendling J.,WU Vienna
Information and Software Technology | Year: 2012
Context: Quality assurance of business process models has been recognized as an important factor for modeling success at an enterprise level. Since quality of models might be subject to different interpretations, it should be addressed in the most objective way, by the application of measures. That said, however, assessment of measurement results is not a straightforward task: it requires the identification of relevant threshold values, which are able to distinguish different levels of process model quality. Objective: Since there is no consensual technique for obtaining these values, this paper proposes the definition of thresholds for gateway complexity measures based on the application of statistical techniques on empirical data. Method: To this end, we conducted a controlled experiment that evaluates quality characteristics of understandability and modifiability of process models in two different runs. The thresholds obtained were validated in a replication of the experiment. Results: The thresholds for gateway complexity measures are instrumental as guidelines for novice modelers. A tool for supporting business process model measurement and improvement is described, based on the automatic application of measurement, and assessment as well as derivation of advice about how to improve the quality of the model. Conclusion: It is concluded that thresholds classified business process models in the specific level of understandability and modifiability, so these thresholds were good and useful for decision-making. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malinova M.,WU Vienna
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing | Year: 2015
Organizations are leaning towards becoming more processoriented in order to better serve their customers. An approach that enables achieving such process orientation is business process management (BPM). In this context business process modeling is used to graphically represent business processes. As a result organizations are faced with large collections of process models. The process models are typically organized in a process architecture which comprises a number of levels. The most top level is commonly the process map where all processes of one organization and the relations between them are depicted in a very abstract manner. Whereas there are well-defined languages for modelling the details of singular processes (e.g. BPMN, EPC), such a language for supporting the design of process maps is still missing. As a result, we are faced with a vast variety of process map designs from practice, as practitioners typically rely on their own creativity when undertaking this task. This study addresses this gap by using various methods to develop a language for process map design which will support practitioners to design their process maps in a standardized manner. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.
Oberhofer P.,WU Vienna |
Furst E.,WU Vienna
Business Strategy and the Environment | Year: 2013
Sustainable Development and Environmental Policy are becoming increasingly important in the development of business strategies. Consequently, corporate road freight transport comes under particular scrutiny due to its substantial impact on the environment. This paper explores the implementation of environmental management in the Austrian road freight transport sector. A model based on an extensive literature review is developed and adapted to show the impact of attitude, company size and sector affiliation. It is tested using data from a quantitative survey. Based on an extensive literature review a model of influencing factors is developed and tested using data from a quantitative survey. According to our findings, we adopted the model with respect to the impact of attitude, company size and sector affiliation. Although decision-makers' attitudes have a significant influence on the companies' actual environmental performance, firm size and sector affiliation are shown to have a far greater influence. It is therefore necessary to offer external incentives and support in order to improve environmental behaviour, especially among smaller and transport companies. Such instruments, however, need to be aligned on an international basis and across industries to prevent friction and competitive disadvantage. In addition to policy intervention (legal restrictions and incentives) and improvements on a corporate level, consumer awareness should be raised in order to create public pressure for companies to implement environmental management. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Leopold H.,Humboldt University of Berlin |
Mendling J.,WU Vienna
Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing | Year: 2012
Although several approaches for service identification have been defined in research and practice, there is a notable lack of automatic analysis techniques. In this paper we take the integrated approach by Kohlborn et al. as a starting point, and combine different analysis techniques in a novel way. Our contribution is an automated approach for the identification and detailing of service candidates. Its output is meant to provide a transparent basis for making decisions about which services to implement with which priority. The approach has been implemented and evaluated for an industry collection of process models. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Berger U.,WU Vienna
Dynamic Games and Applications | Year: 2012
In this technical note we use insights from the theory of projective geometry to provide novel and non-algebraic proofs of convergence of continuous-time fictitious play for a class of games. As a corollary we obtain a kind of equilibrium selection result, whereby continuous-time fictitious play converges to a particular equilibrium contained in a continuum of equivalent equilibria for symmetric 4×4 zero-sum games. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.