Perhans K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences |
Glode D.,Mellanskog |
Gilbertsson J.,WSP Environmental |
Persson A.,Swedish Forest Agency |
Gustafsson L.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011
Retaining forest patches at final harvest is a key conservation measure in boreal forests, but guidelines for how to increase its cost-effectiveness are lacking. In a study in boreal Sweden, we compared the cost-effectiveness of three different approaches a forest owner may use to select patches: selection based on the conservation value of patches alone, economic cost alone or both of them combined. We also compared the cost-effectiveness of six different common types of patches. Conservation value was measured as species richness of bryophytes and lichens and as structural characteristics of patches. Compared to the selection approach in which both conservation value and cost were used, cost-effectiveness was 5-14% lower when only conservation value was used, depending on how conservation value was measured. On the contrary, using only the economic cost decreased the cost-effectiveness by only 1-2%. Among the patch types, swamp forest areas and deciduous tree groups were cost-effective types to retain. However, the patch types were complementary in their species composition and all hosted unique species. We argue that, ideally, assessments of both conservation values and economic costs of retaining patches should be made prior to harvest to enable planners to make well-informed and cost-effective decisions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Parker J.,WSP Property and Development |
Sharratt M.,WSP Environmental |
Richmond J.,WSP Environmental
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering | Year: 2012
The Shard is a 310 m high mixed-use tower, built next to the masonry arches that support London Bridge railway station in central London. Ground movements have occurred because of the demolition of the 26 storey tower that previously occupied the site, the excavation of a three storey basement, and the construction of the new building. These ground movements have led to axial and rotational strains in the masonry arches. Enabling works for the Shard in the vicinity have also caused arch movements. Initial assessments of the effects of movement on the arches, including the likelihood of cracking, were carried out using charts published by Boscardin and Cording. However the arches at London Bridge consistently performed better than predicted. This paper presents the results from the Shard project, and discusses possible reasons for the difference from Boscardin and Cording's findings.
Ohrstrom E.,Gothenburg University |
Gidlof-Gunnarsson A.,Gothenburg University |
Ogren M.,Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute |
Jerson T.,WSP Environmental
39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010, INTER-NOISE 2010 | Year: 2010
To provide additional knowledge on the long term effects of railway and road traffic noise socio-acoustic surveys were performed in two residential areas exposed to road traffic noise (highway and major roads) and two areas exposed to railway noise (124 trains per day). Results were obtained for 974 individuals exposed to comparative sound levels ranging from L Aeq,24h 45 to 65 dB. Road traffic caused significantly more noise annoyance than railway traffic, however, the difference decreased somewhat at higher sound levels above L Aeq,24h 60 dB. For L den the difference in annoyance between the two noise sources was larger and the difference increased at higher sound levels. At all sound levels, road traffic noise caused more disturbances of rest/relaxation (L Aeq,24h) and sleep quality (L night) but less disturbance of conversation than railway noise. It was concluded that noise from railway traffic overall causes less adverse health effects than road traffic noise, in cases with a relatively moderate number of trains per day.
Gidlof-Gunnarsson A.,Gothenburg University |
Ogren M.,Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute |
Jerson T.,WSP Environmental |
Ohrstrom E.,Gothenburg University
Noise and Health | Year: 2012
Internationally accepted exposure-response relationships show that railway noise causes less annoyance than road traffic and aircraft noise. Railway transport, both passenger and freight transport, is increasing, and new railway lines are planned for environmental reasons. The combination of more frequent railway traffic and faster and heavier trains will, most probably, lead to more disturbances from railway traffic in the near future. To effectively plan for mitigations against noise and vibration from railway traffic, new studies are needed to obtain a better basis of knowledge. The main objectives of the present study was to investigate how the relationship between noise levels from railway traffic and general annoyance is influenced by (i) number of trains, (ii) the presence of ground borne vibrations, and (iii) building situational factors, such as orientation of balcony/patio and bedroom window. Socio-acoustic field studies were executed in residential areas; (1) with relatively intense railway traffic; (2) with strong vibrations, and; (3) with the most intense railway traffic in the country. Data was obtained for 1695 respondents exposed to sound levels ranging from L Aeq,24h 45 to 65 dB. Both number of trains and presence of ground-borne vibrations, and not just the noise level per se, are of relevance for how annoying railway noise is perceived. The results imply that, for the proportion annoyed to be equal, a 5-7 dB lower noise level is needed in areas where the railway traffic causes strong ground-borne vibrations and in areas with a very large number of trains. General noise annoyance was twice as high among residents in dwellings with balcony/patio oriented towards the railway and about 1.5 times higher among residents with bedroom windows facing the railway.
Sun X.,Swedish Museum of Natural History |
Andersson P.,Swedish Museum of Natural History |
Land M.,WSP Environmental |
Humborg C.,University of Stockholm |
Morth C.-M.,University of Stockholm
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2010
We demonstrate in this study that a single focusing multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) equipped with a hexapole gas-collision cell (GV-instrument®Isoprobe) can precisely determine the δ29Si (2S.D., 0.2‰) using a total Si consumption of less than 14 nmole (390 ng Si). Testing and evaluation of background, rinse time, and major matrix effects have been performed in a systematic way to establish a procedure to measure δ29Si in small quantities. Chemical purification prior to analysis is required to remove potential interferences. For data collected during a four-year period, the average δ29Si value of IRMM-018 relative to NBS-28 was found to be -0.95‰ (n = 23, 2S.D. 0.16‰) with a 95% confidence interval (-0.95 ± 0.028‰). The mean δ29Si value of the Big-Batch standard was found to be -5.50‰ (n = 6, 2S.D. 0.26‰). Although determination of the δ30Si measurements is not possible, with our current instrument we demonstrate that this system provides a fast and long-term reliable method for the analysis of δ29Si in purified samples with low Si concentration (18 M Si). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Van Praagh M.,Sweco Environment |
Van Praagh M.,Lund University |
Modin H.,Sweco Environment |
Trygg J.,WSP Environmental
Waste Management | Year: 2015
This study aims to verify the effect of physically removing the outer surface of contaminated concrete on total contents and on potential mobility of pollutants by means of leaching tests. Reclaimed concrete from 3 industrial sites in Sweden were included: A tar impregnated military storage, a military tar track-depot, as well as concrete constructions used for disposing of pesticide production surplus and residues. Solid materials and leachates from batch and column leaching tests were analysed for metals, Cl, F, SO4, DOC and contents of suspected organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH, and pesticides/substances for pesticide production such as phenoxy acids, chlorophenols and chlorocresols, respectively). In case of PAH contaminated concrete, results indicate that removing 1 or 5mm of the surface lead to total concentrations below the Swedish guidelines for recycling of aggregates and soil in groundwork constructions. 3 out of 4 concrete samples contaminated with pesticides fulfilled Swedish guidelines for contaminated soil. Results from batch and column leaching tests indicated, however, that concentrations above environmental quality standards for certain PAH and phenoxy acids, respectively, might occur at site when the crushed concrete is recycled in groundwork constructions. As leaching tests engaged in the study deviated from leaching test standards with a limited number of samples, the potential impact of the leaching tests' equipment on measured PAH and pesticide leachate concentrations has to be evaluated in future work. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sohlenius-Sternbeck A.-K.,Astrazeneca |
Afzelius L.,Astrazeneca |
Prusis P.,Astrazeneca |
Neelissen J.,Astrazeneca |
And 7 more authors.
Xenobiotica | Year: 2010
We compare three different approaches to scale clearance (CL) from human hepatocyte and microsome CLint (intrinsic CL) for 52 drug compounds. By using the well-stirred model with protein binding included only 11% and 30% of the compounds were predicted within 2-fold and the average absolute fold errors (AAFE) for the predictions were 5.9 and 4.1 for hepatocytes and microsomes, respectively. When predictions were performed without protein binding, 59% of the compounds were predicted within 2-fold using either hepatocytes or microsomes and the AAFE was 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. For hepatocytes and microsomes there were significant correlations (P8.7×10-13, R20.72; P2.8×10-9, R20.61) between predicted CLint in vivo (obtained from in vitro CLint) and measured CLint in vivo (obtained using the well-stirred model). When CL was calculated from the regression, 76% and 70% of the compounds were predicted within 2-fold and the AAFE was 1.6 and 1.8 for hepatocytes and microsomes, respectively. We demonstrate that microsomes and hepatocytes are in many cases comparable when scaling of CL is performed from regression. By using the hepatocyte regression, CL for 82% of the compounds in an independent test set (n11) were predicted within 2-fold (AAFE 1.4). We suggest that a regression line that adjusts for systematic under-predictions should be the first-hand choice for scaling of CL. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.
Fanning M.,WSP Environmental.
Health estate | Year: 2011
The Department of Health (DH), Defra, and the Department for Transport, have recently announced the publication of the second edition of the Safe management of healthcare waste manual (known as Health Technical Memorandum 07-01). Here, one of the key authors, Mick Fanning, associate consultant at environmental, energy, and sustainability consultancy, WSP Environment and Energy, gives an idea of the scope of the new guidance, with input from Lorraine Holme, programme manager, Sustainable Development Department, at the Department of Health's Health Estates & Facilities Division.
Law K.C.,WSP Environmental
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2011
This paper presents the assessment of short- and long-term settlements and bearing capacity of a 13 m high chalk fill platform for a housing development in a former chalk quarry in Medway Gate, Kent, UK. A roped-access inspection followed by an intrusive site investigation provided evidence that the quality of in situ chalk improved with depth. It was also indicated that there was sufficient structured chalk on site for the platform construction. End-product specification with the stipulation of dry density and moisture content limits was used for the required chalk compaction. Trial compactions were carried out to confirm roller suitability and the thickness of each compacted layer. Nuclear density tests supplemented by sand replacement and laboratory tests provided a quick means of monitoring dry density and moisture content during construction. In situ plate bearing tests confirmed that compacted chalk with a dry density above 1 55 Mg/m could generally provide a bearing capacity greater than 150 kN/m2 as required in the contract. Post-construction settlement monitoring results indicated both immediate and creep settlements in the compacted chalk, and confirmed the time required for creep settlement to complete: hence the suitable timing for house construction.
PubMed | WSP Environmental.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Health estate | Year: 2011
The Department of Health (DH), Defra, and the Department for Transport, have recently announced the publication of the second edition of the Safe management of healthcare waste manual (known as Health Technical Memorandum 07-01). Here, one of the key authors, Mick Fanning, associate consultant at environmental, energy, and sustainability consultancy, WSP Environment and Energy, gives an idea of the scope of the new guidance, with input from Lorraine Holme, programme manager, Sustainable Development Department, at the Department of Healths Health Estates & Facilities Division.