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Marcus S.,WSP Cantor Seinuk
fib Symposium TEL-AVIV 2013: Engineering a Concrete Future: Technology, Modeling and Construction, Proceedings | Year: 2013

At the start of the modern era of construct ion, structural steel was exclusively utilized in tall buildings. The principal cause for the absence of concrete as a primary building material was the lack of strength and consequently the low modulus of elasticity. In contrast, in the last two decades achievements in high strength concrete have positioned it as a strong competitor in the construction materials arena. As the result of the scarcity of available land, structures grew taller and slimmer some with a ratio of height to width of 7 or more; these buildings are now commonly referred to as slender structures. For these slender structures concrete proved to have superior qualities as compared to structural steel construction. Considering that lateral displacement, period and acceleration are predominant factors in the engineering of slender structures, concrete offers qualities such as a greater generalized mass and higher natural damping values, essential factors in limiting acceleration. All of the above coupled with practical achievements in concrete fabrication, delivery and placement, an entire array of form work technologies, concrete vertical transportation and most important of alt the economie factors. make concrete the clear winner. Today it could be said that concrete has practically taken the place of structural steel becoming the exclusive material used in tall slender structures.


Zhuang Y.,Fuzhou University | Fu G.,Wayne State University | Chun P.-J.,Wayne State University | Feng J.,WSP Cantor Seinuk
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2011

A prototype of sensored bridge bearing was developed, fabricated, tested and planned to be applied in two bridge structures for sensing and monitoring of construction process and service condition. Besides, numerical modeling of the prototype was performed using the finite element method with ABAQUS, and meanwhile the testing results were calibrated. Numerical simulation results of the selected two bridge structures show that certain bearing reactions are sensitive to the interested behaviors and performances. This kind of sensored bearing is considered feasible for monitoring construction, damage scenario, and applied loads. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.


Fu G.,Wayne State University | Fu G.,Tongji University | Feng J.,WSP Cantor Seinuk | Dekelbab W.,Transportation Research Board
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction | Year: 2010

Commercial vehicle weight limits here refer to those on the gross weight, axle spacing, and axle weights. They have a notable influence on the deterioration and lifespan of highway facilities such as pavements and bridges. A new methodology is presented here for estimating the monetary impact to a network of highway bridges due to commercial vehicle weight limit increase. This methodology focuses on four categories of cost impact: (1) life reduction due to fatigue of steel components; (2) life reduction due to fatigue of reinforced concrete decks; (3) requirements for addressing deficiency of existing bridges; and (4) capacity requirements for new bridges. For illustration, an application example of the new methodology is presented. The results show that Categories 3 and 4, additional inadequate bridges and increased requirements for new bridges, contribute more significantly to the total impact cost. In addition, a computer software program for the methodology has been developed and is introduced in this paper to facilitate implementation. It is intended to be used for highway planning at different network levels, such as for state, provincial, federal, or national jurisdictions. © 2010 ASCE.


Fu G.,Wayne State University | Fu G.,Tongji University | Fu G.,Fuzhou University | Zhuang Y.,Wayne State University | Feng J.,WSP Cantor Seinuk
Journal of Bridge Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper focuses on the behavior of skewed concrete bridge decks on steel superstructure subjected to truck wheel loads. It was initiated to meet the need for investigating the role of truck loads in observed skewed deck cracking, which may interest bridge owners and engineers. Finite-element analysis was performed for typical skewed concrete decks, verified using insitu deck strain measurement during load testing of a bridge skewed at 49.1. The analysis results show that service truck loads induce low strains/stresses in the decks, unlikely to initiate concrete cracking alone. Nevertheless, repeated truck wheel load application may cause cracks to become wider, longer, and more visible. The local effect of wheel load significantly contributes to the total strain/stress response, and the global effect may be negligible or significant, depending on the location. The current design approach estimates the local effect but ignores the global effect. It therefore does not model the situation satisfactorily. In addition, total strain/stress effects due to truck load increase slightly because of skew angle. © 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Fu G.,Wayne State University | Fu G.,Tongji University | Feng J.,WSP Cantor Seinuk | Dimaria J.,WSP Cantor Seinuk | Zhuang Y.,Wayne State University
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life-Cycle Optimization - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management | Year: 2010

Many highway bridge decks are made of reinforced concrete for a number of advantages. On the other hand, concrete materials are susceptible to cracking, which may expedite deterioration. This paper focuses on the behavior of skewed concrete bridge decks on steel superstructure subjected to thermal load and truck load. It was to meet the need of the Michigan Department of Transportation for investigating observed skewed deck cracking. Full scale bridge deck measurement and finite element analysis were performed. The numerical modeling was verified using the in-situ deck strain measurement of the bridge skewed at 49.1°. The results show that service truck loads induce low strains / stresses in the deck, unlikely to initiate concrete cracking alone. Rather the thermal load and shrinkage of cement caused the observed cracking, due to the constraint of the supporting beams. Nevertheless, repeated truck load application may cause the cracks to become wider, longer, and more visible. In addition, the skew angle increases, not very significantly, the total strain/stress effect due to the truck wheel load. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Fu G.,Wayne State University | Fu G.,Tongji University | Feng J.,WSP Cantor Seinuk | Dimaria J.,Wayne State University | Zhuang Y.,Wayne State University
Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life-Cycle Optimization - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management | Year: 2010

Many highway bridge decks are made of reinforced concrete for a number of advantages. On the other hand, concrete materials are susceptible to cracking, which may expedite deterioration. This paper focuses on the behavior of skewed concrete bridge decks on steel superstructure subjected to thermal load and truck load. It was to meet the need of the Michigan Department of Transportation for investigating observed skewed deck cracking. Full scale bridge deck measurement and finite element analysis were performed. The numerical modeling was verified using the in-situ deck strain measurement of the bridge skewed at 49.1°. The results show that service truck loads induce low strains / stresses in the deck, unlikely to initiate concrete cracking alone. Rather the thermal load and shrinkage of cement caused the observed cracking, due to the constraint of the supporting beams. Nevertheless, repeated truck load application may cause the cracks to become wider, longer, and more visible. In addition, the skew angle increases, not very significantly, the total strain/stress effect due to the truck wheel load. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Fernandez Ruiz M.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Mirzaei Y.,WSP Cantor Seinuk | Muttoni A.,Structural Concrete Laboratory at EPFL
ACI Structural Journal | Year: 2013

Reinforced concrete flat slabs are a common structural system for cast-in-place concrete slabs. Failures in punching shear near the column regions are typically governing at ultimate. In case no punching shear or integrity reinforcement is placed, failures in punching develop normally in a brittle manner with almost no warning signs. Furthermore, the residual strength after punching is, in general, significantly lower than the punching load. Thus, punching of a single column of a flat slab overloads adjacent columns and can potentially lead to their failure on punching, thus triggering the progressive collapse of the structure. Over the past decades, several collapses have been reported due to punching shear failures, resulting in human casualties and extensive damage. Other than placing conventional punching shear reinforcement, the deformation capacity and residual strength after punching can also be enhanced by placing integrity reinforcement to avoid progressive collapses of flat slabs. This paper presents the main results of an extensive experimental campaign performed at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) on the role of integrity reinforcement by means of 20 slabs with dimensions of 1500 x 1500 x 125 mm (?5 ft x 5 ft x 5 in.) and various integrity reinforcement layouts. The performance and robustness of the various solutions is investigated to obtain physical explanations and a consistent design model for the load-carrying mechanisms and strength after punching failures.


Mawer R.W.,WSP Cantor Seinuk | Byfield M.P.,University of Southampton
Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering | Year: 2010

U-section steel sheet piles are used for constructing retaining walls and they are connected together to form continuous walls using sliding joints located along their centerlines. Interpile movement along these joints can, in theory, reduce strength by 55% and stiffness by 70%, in comparison with the performance of piles in which no slip occurs (full composite action). This problem of interlock slippage is known as reduced modulus action (RMA). Despite the potential for this problem, it is common practice in many countries to ignore RMA in design, although the exact conditions governing when it becomes a design issue are not fully understood. This paper presents results from an investigation into this problem using experimental tests carried out using miniature piles. Unlike previous studies these tests were carried out using a similar load arrangement to that found in practice. The investigation indicates that the loading configuration affects the development of RMA and that friction between pile interlocks has the potential to mitigate much of the effect of RMA. A numerical model simulating the tests was developed and it has been used to model full-scale piles. The study indicates that many commonly occurring forms of steel sheet pile walls are unlikely to exhibit significant problems from RMA and this is relevant to pile design using Eurocode 3: Part 5. © 2010 ASCE.


Rahimian A.,WSP Cantor Seinuk
ACI Structural Journal | Year: 2011

The present ACI 318-11 code provisions on the effective stiffness of shear wall, as well as several other standards and technical papers, are reviewed. A series of nonlinear analyses are performed for shear wall under wind and gravity loading considering wellknown constitutive relations for concrete, including the tensionstiffening behavior. The results are compared with ACI 318-11 and other references. It is demonstrated that the ACI provisions for shear walls can be overly conservative for a range of behavior typical of wind loading. Two methods and formulas are proposed for the effective stiffness of shear wall suitable for design office practice. The proposed methods are capable of predicting the effective stiffness of the shear walls for different loading intensities, as could be related to serviceability or ultimate states. This could facilitate the performance-based design of shear wall structures under wind loading. © 2011, American Concrete Institute.


Cowan D.,WSP Cantor Seinuk
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Civil Engineering | Year: 2010

Strata SE1 is a new 43-storey, 148 m tall reinforced concrete residential tower leading the sustainable regeneration of the Elephant and Castle area in London, UK. With a curved triangular footprint and three 9 m diameter wind turbines, the tower has been designed economically and built quickly on a confined city centre site. This paper describes the design and construction of the project, which used a system of 'walking columns' to achieve its tapered shape, with slabs acting as struts and ties. Headed reinforcement bars were used within the ties - one of the first applications in a UK building.

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