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Carpenter N.E.,University of Southampton | Dickson M.E.,University of Auckland | Walkden M.J.A.,WSP | Nicholls R.J.,University of Southampton | Powrie W.,University of Southampton
Marine Geology | Year: 2014

Geomorphic modelling is a key method to understand the soft cliff recession process to predict future rates of retreat and responses to climate change. A range of process-based models have been used; however the influence of varied vertical lithology has yet to be quantified. This paper describes modifications to the 2D SCAPE (Soft Cliff and Platform Erosion) model, carried out to explore such interactions between vertical changes in cliff resistive strength and prevailing coastal conditions. As expected, weaker (/more resistant) layers lead to more (/less) rapid retreat. However, this effect is strongly influenced by the position of such layers relative to mean sea level, where the erosive potential is greatest. Moreover, model simulations reveal that layers of variable resistance give an asymmetric response in terms of both rates of retreat and the timeframe for the effect to be realised. For example, a reduction of material strength of 1/5 (in comparison to the remainder of the cliff) about mean sea level results in a rapid 130% increase in the rate of retreat in comparison to the introduction of a five times more resistant layer of the same characteristics. This variation in response can be attributed to the different magnitudes of feedback governing profile reshaping associated with the change in lithology. For example, the introduction of a weaker layer amplifies erosion through its greater erosive potential combined with steepening of the overlying section. The results have important implications for the management of coastal cliffs exhibiting variable stratigraphy, combined with the potential for future interactions with sea-level rise. © 2014 The Authors.


Uttam K.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Faith-Ell C.,WSP | Balfors B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2012

EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Parkhurst S.,WSP
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Energy | Year: 2014

The Institution of Civil Engineers energy expert panel has published a series of status reports concerned with various forms of energy such as wind, hydro, nuclear and energy from waste. Designed to be both informative and contemporary, the reports are updated regularly to provide accurate information to a varied audience. The present report focuses on the current status of shale gas in the UK.


Mark Lawson R.,University of Surrey | Richards J.,WSP
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Structures and Buildings | Year: 2010

Modular construction is widely used for residential buildings of four to eight storeys and there is pressure to extend this relatively new form of construction to 12 storeys or more. This paper reviews recent modular technologies, and also presents load tests and the analysis of light steel modular walls In compression. A design method for high-rise modular applications is presented taking account of second-order effects and installation tolerances. For the modular walls tested, it was found that the plasterboard and external sheathing boards effectively prevent minor axis buckling of the C sections, so that failure occurred either by major axis buckling or local crushing of the section. In all cases, the results of the tests on 75 mm and 100 mm deep × I · 6 mm thick C sections exceeded the design resistance to BS 5950-5 by 10 to 40%. However, an eccentricity of 20 mm in load application reduced the failure load by 18 to 36% owing to local crushing of the C section. Tension tests on typical connections between the modules and corridors gave a failure load of 40 kN, which is adequate to transfer wind forces to a braced core and also to provide tying action in the event of loss of support to one corner of a module. Corner posts provide enhanced compression resistance but their buckling resistance is dependent on the sway stiffness of the wall panel. It is also shown that the notional horizontal force approach for steel structures presented in BS 5950-1 should be increased for modular construction.


Nall D.H.,Thornton Tomasetti | Sedlak R.,WSP
ASHRAE Journal | Year: 2013

More than half of human water demands can be met with recycled nonpotable water, which opens up the possibilities for many water consumption reduction strategies. Recycled sources include HVAC condensate, rooftop storm water, gray (wash) water, and local sewage treatment plant effluent. Some of these are relatively clean, requiring only antimicrobial treatment, while others require filtration or removal of organic contaminants.

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