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Villa L.,RWTH Aachen | Boor P.,RWTH Aachen | Konieczny A.,RWTH Aachen | Konieczny A.,Wrovasc Integrated Cardiovascular Center | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is the most common nephritis worldwide. We examined the effects of low- and high-dose telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, in rats with progressive anti-Thy1.1 mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis in a clinically relevant situation of established renal damage. Uninephrectomized nephritic rats were randomized on day 28 to remain untreated (control treatment; CT), or to receive low- (0.1 mg/kg/day, LT) or high-dose telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, HT), hydrochlorothiazide + hydralazine (8 + 32 mg/kg/day, HCT + H), or atenolol (100 mg/kg/day, AT). CT and LT rats were hypertensive, whereas HT, HCT + H and AT treatment normalized blood pressures. On day 131, despite similar blood lowering effects, only HT, but not AT or HCT + H, prevented loss of renal function and reduced proteinuria compared to CT. Only HT potently ameliorated glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial damage, cortical matrix deposition, podocyte damage and macrophage infiltration. HT reduced cortical expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor-α and -β as well as transforming growth factor-β1. LT exhibited minor but significant efficacy even in the absence of antihypertensive effects. Transcript array analyses revealed a four-fold down-regulation of renal cortical chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6 (CCR6) mRNA by HT, which was confirmed at the protein level. Silencing of CCR6 did not alter podocyte function in vitro, thus indicating a predominant role in the tubulo-interstitium. In human kidney biopsies, CCR6 mRNA and mRNA of its ligand chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 was up-regulated in patients with progressive IgA nephropathy compared to stable disease. Thus, delayed treatment with high-dose telmisartan exerted a pronounced benefit in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis, which extended beyond that of equivalent blood pressure lowering. We identified down-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptors and CCR6 as potential mediators of telmisartan-related renoprotection. CCR6 may also regulate the renal outcome in human mesangioprolfierative glomerulonephritis. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Doroszko A.,Wroclaw Medical University | Doroszko A.,Wrovasc Integrated Cardiovascular Center | Janus A.,Wroclaw Medical University | Szahidewicz-Krupska E.,Wroclaw Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine | Year: 2016

Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension. © Copyright by Wroclaw Medical University.

Konieczny A.,Voivodship Specialistic Hospital | Konieczny A.,Wrovasc Integrated Cardiovascular Center | Czyzewska-Buczynska A.,Wrovasc Integrated Cardiovascular Center | Ryba M.,Voivodship Specialistic Hospital | And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Nephrology | Year: 2015

Background/Aims: A link between the number of podocytes excreted in the urine and activity of glomerular disease has been established. The aim of this study was to investigate possible correlations between urinary cells' phenotype and the progression of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Methods: Forty patients with newly diagnosed FSGS were included. Cells were isolated from urine by adherence to collagen-coated cover slips and assessed for the expression of podocalyxin (PDX), CD68 and Ki67 antigens by indirect immunofluorescence. In addition, double-staining procedures were performed in combinations of the above antigens plus cytokeratin, WT1 and CD-105. Twenty-two patients in whom urinary protein to creatinine ratio exceeded 2.0 at diagnosis were followed for 36 months, with assessments of renal function and proteinuria every 3 months. During observation, patients were subjected to standard therapy. Results: Significantly higher numbers of Ki67 positive cells at the onset of the study were observed in patients who have doubled serum creatinine (SCr) in follow-up, than in those who have not (p = 0.0149). By logistic regression analysis, both CD68 and Ki67, but not anti-PDX positive cell numbers at diagnosis were found to be predictors of doubling SCr concentration in 36 months' follow-up. Results of double staining indicate that PDX positive cells could be identified as podocytes or their precursors and parietal epithelial cells. Conclusion: Urinary sediment PDX positive cell numbers do not predict the progression of FSGS, whereas CD68 and Ki67 phenotype of urinary podocytic lineage clearly has a prognostic significance in 36 months' observation of primary FSGS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Derkacz A.,Wroclaw Medical University | Protasiewicz M.,Wroclaw Medical University | Rola P.,Wrovasc Integrated Cardiovascular Center | Podgorska K.,Wrovasc Integrated Cardiovascular Center | And 7 more authors.
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery | Year: 2014

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravascular low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on selected growth factor levels in subjects undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI).Background data: Restenosis remains the main problem with the long-term efficacy of PCI, and growth factors are postulated to play a crucial role in the restenosis cascade.Materials and methods: In a randomized prospective study, an 808nm LLLT (100mW/cm2, continuous wave laser, 9J/cm2, illuminated area 1.6-2.5cm2) was delivered intracoronarily to patients during PCI. Fifty-two patients underwent irradiation with laser light, and 49 constituted the control group. In all individuals, serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) were measured before angioplasty, then 6 and 12h and 1 month after the procedure. In all patients, a control angiography was performed 6 months later.Results: There were no significant differences in IGF-1 and VEGF levels between the groups. While evaluating FGF-2, we observed its significantly lower levels in the irradiated patients during each examination. There was a significant increase in TGF-β1 level in control group after 12h of observation. In the irradiated individuals, control angiography revealed smaller late lumen loss and smaller late lumen loss index as compared with the control group. The restenosis rate was 15.0% in the treated group, and 32.4% in the control group, respectively.Conclusions: LLLT decreases levels of TGF-β1 and FGF-2 in patients undergoing coronary intervention, which may explain smaller neointima formation. © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Dys K.,Regional Development Centre | Dys K.,Wrovasc Integrated Cardiovascular Center | Drelichowska-Durawa J.,Wrovasc Integrated Cardiovascular Center | Drelichowska-Durawa J.,Regional Development Centre | And 12 more authors.
Polish Journal of Radiology | Year: 2013

Background: Treatment of peripheral arterial diseases may be distinguished into conservative and interventional management; the latter is divided into surgical and endovascular procedures. Management of peripheral artery stenosis and occlusion with vascular stents is associated with the risk of late complications such as restenosis, stent fracture or dislocation. Case Report: A 62-year-old woman with generalized atherosclerosis, particularly extensive in lower limb arteries, was admitted to the Department of Angiology 11 months after having an endovascular procedure performed due to critical ischemia of left lower limb. Because of stent occlusion, a decision to perform angiographic examination of lower limb arteries was made. Examination revealed occlusion of the superficial femoral artery along its entire length, including previously implanted stents. Distal stent was fractured with slight dislocation of the proximal segment. A decision was made to perform mechanical thrombectomy using a Rotarex system followed by a stent-in-stent placement procedure. Follow-up angiography and ultrasound scan performed 24 hours after the procedure revealed a patent vessel with satisfactory blood flow. Discussion: Nowadays, imaging diagnostics of peripheral artery stenosis involves non-invasive examinations such as ultrasound, minimally invasive examinations such as angio-MRI and MDCT, or invasive examinations such as DSA and IVUS. DSA examinations are used to confirm significant stenosis or occlusion of a vessel, particularly when qualifying a patient for endovascular treatment. Due to their anatomic location, the superficial femoral artery and the popliteal artery are subject to various forces e.g. those exerted by the working muscles. Mechanical thrombectomy and atherectomy are efficient methods of arterial recanalization used in the treatment of acute, subacute or even chronic occlusions or stenosis of peripheral vessels. Conclusions: Frequency of angioplasty and vascular stent implantation procedures is increased in patients with peripheral arterial disease, thus increasing the incidence of reported early and late complications such as acute stent thrombosis, restenosis and stent fractures. The Rotarex transcutaneous mechanical thrombectomy system is an efficient method of treating occlusions in arterial stents. It is also safe when performed by experienced operators. © Pol J Radiol.

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