Time filter

Source Type

Dayton, OH, United States

Wright State University is a public research university in Fairborn, Ohio, located just outside of Dayton near Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and Beavercreek. The university offers degrees at the associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral levels. A branch campus is located at Grand Lake St. Marys State Park southeast of Celina, Ohio. As of 2014, the university had more than 17,000 students enrolled. Wikipedia.

Elman I.,Wright State University | Borsook D.,Harvard University
Neuron | Year: 2016

While chronic pain is considered by some to be a CNS disease, little is understood about underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Addiction models have heuristic value in this regard, because both pain and addictive disorders are characterized by impaired hedonic capacity, compulsive drug seeking, and high stress. In drug addiction such symptomatology has been attributed to reward deficiency, impaired inhibitory control, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning, and anti-reward allostatic neuroadaptations. Here we propose that similar neuroadaptations exist in chronic pain patients. Pain and addictive disorders are characterized by impaired hedonic capacity, preoccupation with and compulsive seeking of drugs, and a heightened level of stress. Elman and Borsook propose that neuroadaptations underlying this symptomatology in drug addiction also exist in pain patients. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. Source

Onady G.M.,Wright State University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation recommends both short-term and long-acting insulin therapy when cystic fibrosis-related diabetes has been diagnosed. Diagnosis is based on: an elevated fasting blood glucose level greater than 6.94 mmol/liter (125 mg/deciliter); or symptomatic diabetes for random glucose levels greater than 11.11 mmol/liter (200 mg/deciliter); or glycated hemoglobin levels of at least 6.5%. To establish the effectiveness of agents for managing diabetes in people with cystic fibrosis in relation to blood sugar levels, lung function and weight management. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also handsearched abstracts from pulmonary symposia and the North American Cystic Fibrosis Conferences.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 22 July 2013. Randomized controlled trials comparing all methods of diabetes therapy in people with diagnosed cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies. The searches identified 19 studies (28 references). Three studies (107 participants) are included: one comparing insulin with oral repaglinide and no medication (short-term single-center study of seven patients with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes and normal fasting glucose); one comparing insulin with oral repaglinide and placebo (long-term multi-center study with 81 patients, 61 of whom had cystic fibrosis-related diabetes); and one 12-week single-center study comparing the long-acting insulin, glargine to short-term neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. The long-term trial of insulin and repaglinide demonstrated no significant difference between treatments. In the smaller study comparing insulin and oral repaglinide, there were two incidents of significant hypoglycemia in the insulin group compared to one in the repaglinide group; in the larger study there were five incidents of significant hypoglycemia in the insulin group and six in the repaglinide group. The study comparing glargine to neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin demonstrated a statistically non-significant weight increase in with longer-acting insulin given at bedtime and reported a mean of six hypoglycemia events in the glargine group compared to five events in the neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin group. None of the three included studies were powered to show a significant improvement in lung function. This review has not found any significant conclusive evidence that long-acting insulins, short-acting insulins or oral hypoglycemic agents have a distinct advantage over one another in controlling hyperglycemia or clinical outcomes associated with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. While some cystic fibrosis centers use oral medications to help control diabetes, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (USA) clinical practice guidelines support the use of insulin therapy and this remains the most widely-used treatment method. Randomized controlled trials specifically related to controlling diabetes with this impact on the course of pulmonary disease process in cystic fibrosis continue to be a high priority.There is no demonstrated advantage yet established for using oral hypoglycemic agents over insulin, and further studies need to be evaluated to establish whether there is clear benefit for using hypoglycemic agents. Agents that potentiate insulin action, especially agents with additional anti-inflammatory potential should be further investigated to see if there may be a clinical advantage to adding these medications to insulin as adjuvant therapy. Source

Zhang X.,Wright State University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2011

This technical note presents a sensor fault detection and isolation scheme for a class of Lipschitz nonlinear systems with unstructured modeling uncertainty. It significantly extends previous results by considering a class of system nonlinearities which are modeled as functions of the system input and partially measurable state variables. A new sensor fault diagnosis method is developed using adaptive estimation techniques. Adaptive thresholds for fault detection and isolation are derived, and several important properties are investigated, including robustness, stability and learning capability, and fault isolability. A robotic example is used to show the effectiveness of the method. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Elbasiouny S.M.,Wright State University
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2014

In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted. Copyright © 2014 by the American Physiological Society. Source

Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the conversion of the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylcholine to choline and phosphatidic acid (PA). PLD's mission in the cell is two-fold: phospholipid turnover with maintenance of the structural integrity of cellular/intracellular membranes and cell signaling through PA and its metabolites. Precisely, through its product of the reaction, PA, PLD has been implicated in a variety of physiological cellular functions, such as intracellular protein trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics, chemotaxis of leukocytes and cell proliferation. The catalytic (HKD) and regulatory (PH and PX) domains were studied in detail in the PLD1 isoform, but PLD2 was traditionally studied in lesser detail and much less was known about its regulation. Our laboratory has been focusing on the study of PLD2 regulation in mammalian cells. Over the past few years, we have reported, in regards to the catalytic action of PLD, that PA is a chemoattractant agent that binds to and signals inside the cell through the ribosomal S6 kinases (S6K). Regarding the regulatory domains of PLD2, we have reported the discovery of the PLD2 interaction with Grb2 via Y169 in the PX domain, and further association to Sos, which results in an increase of de novo DNA synthesis and an interaction (also with Grb2) via the adjacent residue Y179, leading to the regulation of cell ruffling, chemotaxis and phagocytosis of leukocytes. We also present the complex regulation by tyrosine phosphorylation by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) and Src and the role of phosphatases. Recently, there is evidence supporting a new level of regulation of PLD2 at the PH domain, by the discovery of CRIB domains and a Rac2-PLD2 interaction that leads to a dual (positive and negative) effect on its enzymatic activity. Lastly, we review the surprising finding of PLD2 acting as a GEF. A phospholipase such as PLD that exists already in the cell membrane that acts directly on Rac allows a quick response of the cell without intermediary signaling molecules. This provides only the latest level of PLD2 regulation in a field that promises newer and exciting advances in the next few years. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Discover hidden collaborations