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Modlin I.M.,Wren Laboratories | Drozdov I.,Bering Ltd | Bodei L.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Kidd M.,Yale University
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Detection of neuroendocrine tumor (NET) disease progression is a key issue in determining management. Currently, assessment is by imaging (MRI/CT and Octreoscan®) and plasma Chromogranin A (CgA) measurement.Case presentation: We report use of a NET-specific multigene PCR-derived blood transcript signature (NET Index) to assess disease and correlated CgA and gene transcripts with MRI, CT, Octreoscan®, 11C-5HTP-PET/CT and 68Ga-DOTA-PET/CT in a patient with NET.Conclusions: Our results identify limitations in evaluating disease status by CgA and identify that a PCR-based test is more sensitive. Alteration in NET blood gene transcript levels prior to image-based tumor confirmation suggests this parameter may also have utility as an index of therapeutic efficacy. © 2014 Modlin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Kidd M.,Wren Laboratories | Bodei L.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Modlin I.M.,Yale University
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2016

Purpose of review The review summarizes the utility and limitations of chromogranin A (CgA) as a circulating biomarker for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recent findings Blood CgA measurement has numerous clinical limitations including poor assay reproducibility, low sensitivity (meta-analysis: 73%, 95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.76), and a paucity of prospective validation studies. A recent study noted elevation in 27% of NETs with a predictive value of 50% for metastases. These findings are consistent with its efficacy primarily as a monoanalyte secretory rather than multidimensional neoplastic marker. An automated CgA assay (KRYPTOR) exhibits similar metrics to the DAKO assay but is only useful in serum and routine storage diminishes its accuracy. Current studies indicate that CgA is more effective as a biomarker for cardiac disease. Given the diverse limitations of CgA, NET biomarker focus has evolved toward measurement of multiple analytes, for example, transcripts. Multianalyte algorithmic analyses perform significantly better as diagnostic (>95%) and prognostic markers (>90%) than CgA (30-74 and ∼50%, respectively) since they delineate different aspects of the biological behavior of NETs, (e.g., proliferome and metabolome). Summary CgA is neither a reliable nor robust NET biomarker. As a monoanalyte, it is restricted by poor metrics and has limited predictive value. Its current clinical utility appears optimal in cardiovascular disease. The significance of CgA in NET disease is diminishing as other analytical approaches, particularly transcript multianalyte assays or other strategies, evolve to supersede it. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Modlin I.M.,Yale University | Bodei L.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Kidd M.,Wren Laboratories
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2016

The management of neuroendocrine neoplasia remains a perplexing problem because of the lack of knowledge of the biology of the disease, its late presentation, the relative insensitivity of imaging modalities and a paucity of predictably effective treatment options. A critical limitation is posed by the lack of accurate biomarkers to guide management, monitor the efficacy of therapy and provide a prognostic assessment of disease progress. Currently utilized monoanalyte biomarkers (e.g. chromogranin, serotonin, pancreastatin etc.) exhibit variable metrics, poor sensitivity, specificity, and predictive ability and are rarely used to guide clinical decision making. A National Cancer Institute Neuroendocrine Tumor summit conference held in 2007 noted biomarker limitations to be a crucial unmet need in the management of neuroendocrine tumors. Nevertheless little progress has been made in this field until recently with the consideration of blood transcript analysis, circulating tumor cells and miRNA measurement.Given the complexity and multidimensionality of the neoplastic process itself, the heterogeneity of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) as well as the interaction of the tumor microenvironment, it is not unexpected that no single (monoanalyte) biomarker has proven to be effective. This deduction reflects the growing recognition that use of a monoanalyte to define a multidimensional disease process has inherent flaws. Logic dictates that no single measured parameter can capture the pathobiological diversity of neoplasia and monoanalytes cannot define the multiple variables (proliferation, metabolic activity, invasive potential and metastatic propensity) that constitute tumor growth.Thus far, most biomarkers whether in tissue or blood/urine have been single analytes with varying degrees of sensitivity and specificity and in general have failed to exhibit robust metrics or lacked methodological rigor. Neuroendocrine (NE) disease represents an area of biomarker paucity since the individual biomarkers (gastrin, insulin etc) are not widely applicable to the diverse types of NE neoplasia (NEN). Broad spectrum markers such as CgA have limitations in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility.This review serves to provide a general background of the evolution of NET biomarkers. It provides an assessment of their current and past usage and limitations in assessing their diagnostic, pathologic and prognostic aspects in respect of NET. It provides a view of the changing methodology of biomarker development and the application of biomathematical analyses to redefining detection and treatment. Finally, it presents a description and consensus on current advances in transcript analysis, miRNA measurement and circulating tumor cell identification. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bodei L.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Kwekkeboom D.J.,LuGenIum Consortium | Kwekkeboom D.J.,Erasmus Medical Center | Kidd M.,Wren Laboratories | And 4 more authors.
Seminars in Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2016

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) has been utilized for more than two decades and has been accepted as an effective therapeutic modality in the treatment of inoperable or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) or neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The two most commonly used radiopeptides for PRRT, 90Y-octreotide and 177Lu-octreotate, produce disease-control rates of 68%-94%, with progression-free survival rates that compare favorably with chemotherapy, somatostatin analogues, and newer targeted therapies. In addition, biochemical and symptomatic responses are commonly observed. In general, PRRT is well tolerated with only low to moderate toxicity in most individuals. In line with the need to place PRRT in the therapeutic sequence of gastroenteropancreatic NENs, a recently sponsored phase III randomized trial in small intestine NENs treated with 177Lu-octreotate vs high-dose octreotide long-acting release demonstrated that 177Lu-octreotate significantly improved progression-free survival. Other strategies that are presently being developed include combinations with targeted therapies or chemotherapy, intra-arterial PRRT, and salvage treatments. Sophisticated molecular tools need to be incorporated into the management strategy to more effectively define therapeutic efficacy and for an early identification of adverse events. The strategy of randomized controlled trials is a key issue to standardize the treatment and establish the position of PRRT in the therapeutic algorithm of NENs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Modlin I.M.,Yale University | Modlin I.M.,Wren Laboratories | Kidd M.,Wren Laboratories | Bodei L.,Italian National Cancer Institute | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2015

OBJECTIVES: Current monoanalyte blood-based biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) do not achieve satisfactory metrics of sensitivity and specificity. We report the sensitivity and selectivity of the PCR-based test, the NETest, to detect tumors with reference to other benign and malignant gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: A total of 179 cases (gastrointestinal tumors: n=81; pancreatic disease: n=98) were prospectively collected and assessed using the NETest or chromogranin A (CgA) to determine metrics for detecting small intestinal and pancreatic NETs. RESULTS: For intestinal carcinoids, the accuracy of the NETest was 93% (all NETs positive and 3 (12%) colorectal tumors were positive). CgA was positive in 80%, but 29% (n=7) of colorectal cancers were CgA positive. For pancreatic disease, the NETest accuracy was 94% (96% NETs positive, 2 (6%) of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) were positive). The accuracy of CgA was 56% (29% of pancreatic NETs were CgA positive). Overall, the NETest was significantly more sensitive than CgA for the detection of small intestinal (area under the curve 0.98 vs. 0.75 P<0.0001) and pancreatic NETs (0.94 vs. 0.52, P<0.0001). NETest scores were elevated (P<0.05) in extensive disease and were more accurate (76-80%) than CgA levels (20-32%). The metrics of the multianalyte NETest met the performance criteria proposed by the National Institutes of Health for biomarkers, whereas CgA measurement did not. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a blood-based multianalyte NET gene transcript measurement of well-differentiated small intestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor disease is sensitive and specific and outperforms the current monoanalyte diagnostic strategy of plasma CgA measurement. Source

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