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Faiola C.,Central Washington University | Faiola C.,Washington State University | Johansen A.M.,Central Washington University | Rybka S.,Central Washington University | And 7 more authors.
Aerosol Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The ultrafine size fraction of ambient particles (ultrafine particles [UFP], diameter < 100 nm) has been identified as being particularly potent in their adverse health effects, yet, the detailed mechanisms for why UFP display such distinctive toxicity are not well understood. In the present study, mitochondria were exposed to ambient UFP while monitoring mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) activity as a model system for biochemical toxicity. UFP samples were collected in rural and urban environments, and chemically characterized for trace metals, ferrous (Fe(II)) and easily reducible ferric (Fe(III)) iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and surface constituents with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Fixed doses of UFP (8 μ g mL-1) inhibited mitochondrial ETC function compared to controls in 94% of the samples after the 20 min of exposure. Significant moderate to weak correlations exist between initial %ETC inhibition (0 - 10 min) and Fe(II) (R = 0.55, P = 0.03, N = 15), anthracene (R = 0.74, P < 0.01, N = 13), and %C-O surface bonds (R = 0.56, P = 0.03, N = 15), whereby anthracene and %C-O correlate with each other (R = 0.58, P = 0.03, N = 14). Multivariate linear regression showed that when combined, Fe(II) and anthracene best describe the initial %ETC inhibition (R = 0.91, P = 0.00, N = 14). No significant associations were identified with total Fe and other trace metals. Results from this study indicate that Fe(II) and anthracene-related, C-O containing, surface structures may contribute to the initial detrimental behavior of UFP, also supporting the idea that the Fe(II)/Fe(III) and certain efficient hydroquinone/quinone redox pairs play important roles due to their potential to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copyright © American Association for Aerosol Research.


Eisenmesser E.Z.,University of Colorado at Denver | Capodagli G.C.,University of Georgia | Armstrong G.S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Holliday M.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 3 more authors.
Protein Science | Year: 2015

Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of several lethal viruses that encodes for a viral ovarian tumor domain (vOTU), which serves to cleave and remove ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) from numerous proteins involved in cellular signaling. Such manipulation of the host cell machinery serves to downregulate the host response and, therefore, complete characterization of these proteases is important. While several structures of the CCHFV vOTU protease have been solved, both free and bound to Ub and ISG15, few structural differences have been found and little insight has been gained as to the structural plasticity of this protease. Therefore, we have used NMR relaxation experiments to probe the dynamics of CCHFV vOTU, both alone and in complex with Ub, discovering a highly dynamic protease that exhibits conformational exchange within the same regions found to engage its Ub substrate. These experiments reveal a structural plasticity around the N-terminal regions of CCHFV vOTU, which are unique to vOTUs, and provide a rationale for engaging multiple substrates with the same binding site. © 2015 The Protein Society.


Kendrick A.A.,University of Colorado at Denver | Holliday M.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | Isern N.G.,WR Wiley Environmental Molecular science Laboratory | Zhang F.,National High Magnetics Field Laboratory | And 5 more authors.
Protein Science | Year: 2014

Interleukin-8 (CXCL8, IL-8) is a proinflammatory chemokine important for the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses via its interaction with G-protein coupled receptors, including CXC receptor 1 (CXCR1). CXCL8 exists as both a monomer and as a dimer at physiological concentrations, yet the molecular basis of CXCL8 interaction with its receptor as well as the importance of CXCL8 dimer formation remain poorly characterized. Although several biological studies have indicated that both the CXCL8 monomer and dimer are active, biophysical studies have reported conflicting results regarding the binding of CXCL8 to CXCR1. To clarify this problem, we expressed and purified a peptide (hCXCR1pep) corresponding to the N-terminal region of human CXCR1 (hCXCR1) and utilized nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to interrogate the binding of wild-type CXCL8 and a previously reported mutant (CXCL8M) that stabilizes the monomeric form. Our data reveal that the CXCL8 monomer engages hCXCR1pep with a slightly higher affinity than the CXCL8 dimer, but that the CXCL8 dimer does not dissociate upon binding hCXCR1pep. These investigations also showed that CXCL8 is dynamic on multiple timescales, which may help explain the versatility in this interleukin for engaging its target receptors. © 2014 The Protein Society.


Holliday M.J.,University of Colorado at Denver | Zhang F.,CNRS French National High Magnetic Field Laboratory | Isern N.G.,WR Wiley Environmental Molecular science Laboratory | Armstrong G.S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Eisenmesser E.Z.,University of Colorado at Denver
Biomolecular NMR Assignments | Year: 2014

Cyclophilins catalyze the reversible peptidyl-prolyl isomerization of their substrates and are present across all kingdoms of life from humans to bacteria. Although numerous biological roles have now been discovered for cyclophilins, their function was initially ascribed to their chaperone-like activity in protein folding where they catalyze the often rate-limiting step of proline isomerization. This chaperone-like activity may be especially important under extreme conditions where cyclophilins are often over expressed, such as in tumors for human cyclophilins (Lee Archiv Pharm Res 33(2): 181-187, 2010), but also in organisms that thrive under extreme conditions, such as theromophilic bacteria. Moreover, the reversible nature of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerization reaction catalyzed by cyclophilins has allowed these enzymes to serve as model systems for probing the role of conformational changes during catalytic turnover (Eisenmesser et al. Science 295(5559): 1520-1523, 2002; Eisenmesser et al. Nature 438(7064): 117-121, 2005). Thus, we present here the resonance assignments of a thermophilic cyclophilin from Geobacillus kaustophilus derived from deep-sea sediment (Takami et al. Extremophiles 8(5): 351-356, 2004). This thermophilic cyclophilin may now be studied at a variety of temperatures to provide insight into the comparative structure, dynamics, and catalytic mechanism of cyclophilins. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Redzic J.S.,University of Colorado at Denver | Armstrong G.S.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Isern N.G.,WR Wiley Environmental Molecular science Laboratory | Jones D.N.M.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

CD147 is a type I transmembrane protein that is involved in inflammatory diseases, cancer progression, and multiple human pathogens utilize CD147 for efficient infection. CD147 expression is so high in several cancers that it is now used as a prognostic marker. The two primary isoforms of CD147 that are related to cancer progression have been identified, differing in their number of immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains. These include CD147 Ig1-Ig2, which is ubiquitously expressed in most tissues, and CD147 Ig0-Ig1-Ig2, which is retinal specific and implicated in retinoblastoma. However, little is known in regard to the retinal specific CD147 Ig0 domain despite its potential role in retinoblastoma. We present the first crystal structure of the human CD147 Ig0 domain and show that the CD147 Ig0 domain is a crystallographic dimer with an I-type domain structure, which maintained in solution. Furthermore, we have utilized our structural data together with mutagenesis to probe the biological activity of CD147-containing proteins, both with and without the CD147 Ig0 domain, within several model cell lines. Our findings reveal that the CD147 Ig0 domain is a potent stimulator of interleukin-6 and suggest that the CD147 Ig0 domain has its own receptor distinct from that of the other CD147 Ig-like domains, CD147 Ig1-Ig2. Finally, we show that the CD147 Ig0 dimer is the functional unit required for activity and can be disrupted by a single point mutation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Curry E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Arey B.,WR Wiley Environmental Molecular science Laboratory
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2°C in the early spring to 50°C in the heat of summer, and again to -2°C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules - produced by and connected to epidermal cells - which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLab™ DualBeam™ focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.

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