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Browse 180 Tables and Figures, 15 Companies, spread across 116 pages available at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/975744-global-sterilization-trays-market-by-manufacturers-countries-type-and-application-forecast-to-2022.html. In the start report describe Sterilization Trays Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk and growth driving force. The report further analyze the top manufacturers of Sterilization Trays, with sales, revenue, and price of Sterilization Trays, in 2016 and 2017. It display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017. The report then show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Sterilization Trays, for each region, from 2012 to 2017. It analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions. The report has analysed the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2012 to 2017. The report also forecast the Sterilization Trays market by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2017 to 2022. In the end the report describe Sterilization Trays sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source. Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers are Medline, Placon, Terumo, Keir Surgical, Solvay, PST Corp, Aesculap, Pyxidis, Summit Medical, Ethicon, Key Surgical, Volk Optical, Aygun, WPI, Sklar. Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers are North America (USA, Canada and Mexico); Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy); Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia); South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) and Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa) Market Segment by Type, covers are Stainless Steel Trays, Plastic Trays and Others Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into Hospital, Clinic, Laboratory and Other Global Glucose Meter Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022: Companies profiled are Roche, JNJ, Bayer, Abbott, Omron, Arkray, Grace, B.Braun, I-SENS, Inc, Infopia Co., Ltd, Hainice Medical Inc, Mendor, All Medicus Co., Ltd, 77 Elektronika Müszeripari Kft, Delta Group, Ok Biotech, Medisana, FIFTY50(USA), Nova Biomedical(USA), Oak Tree Tree Health, Inc.(USA), Omnis Health(USA), Simple Diagnostics(USA), US Diagnostics(USA), SD Biosensor, INC(Korea), Nipro, Terumo Corporation, Homemed (Pty) Ltd(South Africa), Sannuo, Yuwell Medical and YICHENG Global Jaundice Meter Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022: The report analyses the market by Type (Portable and Bench-top) and by Applications (Hospital and Home). Companies profiled are Drger, Delta Medical International, Xuzhou Kejian Hi-tech, Aegis Medicals, Natus Medical, Refine Medical Technology, M&B, Micro Lab Global Hearing Healthcare Devices Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022: The Companies profiled in the global Hearing Healthcare Devices market are William Demant, Sonova, GN Store Nord, Sivantos Group, Widex, Starkey, Cochlear, MED-EL GmbH, Natus Medical Explore more reports on Medical Devices at http://www.reportsnreports.com/market-research/medical-devices/. ReportsnReports.com is an online market research reports library of 500,000+ in-depth studies of over 5000 micro markets. Not limited to any one industry, ReportsnReports.com offers research studies on agriculture, energy and power, chemicals, environment, medical devices, healthcare, food and beverages, water, advanced materials and much more.


Browse 180 Tables and Figures, 15 Companies, spread across 116 pages available at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/975744-global-sterilization-trays-market-by-manufacturers-countries-type-and-application-forecast-to-2022.html. In the start report describe Sterilization Trays Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk and growth driving force. The report further analyze the top manufacturers of Sterilization Trays, with sales, revenue, and price of Sterilization Trays, in 2016 and 2017. It display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017. The report then show the global market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Sterilization Trays, for each region, from 2012 to 2017. It analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions. The report has analysed the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, from 2012 to 2017. The report also forecast the Sterilization Trays market by regions, type and application, with sales and revenue, from 2017 to 2022. In the end the report describe Sterilization Trays sales channel, distributors, traders, dealers, Research Findings and Conclusion, appendix and data source. Market Segment by Manufacturers, this report covers are Medline, Placon, Terumo, Keir Surgical, Solvay, PST Corp, Aesculap, Pyxidis, Summit Medical, Ethicon, Key Surgical, Volk Optical, Aygun, WPI, Sklar. Market Segment by Regions, regional analysis covers are North America (USA, Canada and Mexico); Europe (Germany, France, UK, Russia and Italy); Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India and Southeast Asia); South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) and Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa) Market Segment by Type, covers are Stainless Steel Trays, Plastic Trays and Others Market Segment by Applications, can be divided into Hospital, Clinic, Laboratory and Other Global Glucose Meter Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022: Companies profiled are Roche, JNJ, Bayer, Abbott, Omron, Arkray, Grace, B.Braun, I-SENS, Inc, Infopia Co., Ltd, Hainice Medical Inc, Mendor, All Medicus Co., Ltd, 77 Elektronika Müszeripari Kft, Delta Group, Ok Biotech, Medisana, FIFTY50(USA), Nova Biomedical(USA), Oak Tree Tree Health, Inc.(USA), Omnis Health(USA), Simple Diagnostics(USA), US Diagnostics(USA), SD Biosensor, INC(Korea), Nipro, Terumo Corporation, Homemed (Pty) Ltd(South Africa), Sannuo, Yuwell Medical and YICHENG Global Jaundice Meter Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022: The report analyses the market by Type (Portable and Bench-top) and by Applications (Hospital and Home). Companies profiled are Drger, Delta Medical International, Xuzhou Kejian Hi-tech, Aegis Medicals, Natus Medical, Refine Medical Technology, M&B, Micro Lab Global Hearing Healthcare Devices Market by Manufacturers, Countries, Type and Application, Forecast to 2022: The Companies profiled in the global Hearing Healthcare Devices market are William Demant, Sonova, GN Store Nord, Sivantos Group, Widex, Starkey, Cochlear, MED-EL GmbH, Natus Medical Explore more reports on Medical Devices at http://www.reportsnreports.com/market-research/medical-devices/. ReportsnReports.com is an online market research reports library of 500,000+ in-depth studies of over 5000 micro markets. Not limited to any one industry, ReportsnReports.com offers research studies on agriculture, energy and power, chemicals, environment, medical devices, healthcare, food and beverages, water, advanced materials and much more.


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Nagoya, Japan - Chemists have tried to synthesize carbon nanobelts for more than 60 years, but none have succeeded until now. A team at Nagoya University reported the first organic synthesis of a carbon nanobelt in Science. Carbon nanobelts are expected to serve as a useful template for building carbon nanotubes and open a new field of nanocarbon science. The new nanobelt, measuring 0.83 nanometer (nm) in diameter, was developed by researchers at Nagoya University's JST-ERATO Itami Molecular Nanocarbon Project, and the Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (ITbM). Scientists around the world have tried to synthesize carbon nanobelts since the 1950s and Professor Kenichiro Itami's group has worked on its synthesis for 12 years. "Nobody knew whether its organic synthesis was even possible or not," says Segawa, one of the leaders of this study who had been involved in its synthesis for 7 and a half years. "However, I had my mind set on the synthesis of this beautiful molecule." Carbon nanobelts are belt-shaped molecules composed of fused benzene rings, which are aromatic rings consisting of six carbon atoms. Carbon nanobelts are a segment of carbon nanotubes, which have various applications in electronics and photonics due to their unique physical characteristics. Current synthetic methods produce carbon nanotubes with inconsistent diameters and sidewall structures, which changes their electrical and optical properties. This makes it extremely difficult to isolate and purify a single carbon nanotube that has a specific diameter, length and sidewall structure. Therefore, being able to precisely control the synthesis of structurally uniform carbon nanotubes will help develop novel and highly functional materials. Carbon nanobelts have been identified as a way to build structurally uniform carbon nanotubes. However, synthesizing carbon nanobelts is challenging due to their extremely high strain energies. This is because benzene is stable when flat, but becomes unstable when they are distorted by fusion of the rings. To overcome this problem, Guillaume Povie, a postdoctoral researcher of the JST-ERATO project, Yasutomo Segawa, a group leader of the JST-ERATO project, and Kenichiro Itami, the director of JST-ERATO project and the center director of ITbM, have succeeded in the first chemical synthesis of a carbon nanobelt from a readily available precursor, p-xylene (a benzene molecule with two methyl groups in the 1,4- (para-) position) in 11 steps. The key to this success is their synthetic strategy based on the belt-shaped formation from a macrocycle precursor with relatively low ring strain. In their strategy, the team prepared a macrocycle precursor from p-xylene in 10 steps, and formed the belt-shaped aromatic compound by a coupling reaction. Nickel was essential to mediate the coupling process. "The most difficult part of this research was this key coupling reaction of the macrocycle precursor," says Povie. "The reaction did not proceed well day after day and it took me three to four months for testing various conditions. I have always believed where there's a will, there's a way." In 2015, Itami launched a new initiative in his ERATO project to focus particularly on the synthesis of the carbon nanobelt. At the so-called "belt festival," various new synthetic routes for the carbon nanobelt were proposed and more than 10 researchers were involved in the project. On September 28, 2016, exactly a year after the start of the festival, the carbon nanobelt structure was finally revealed by X-ray crystallography in front of the Itami group members. Everyone held their breath while staring at the screen during X-ray analysis, and cheered when the cylindrical shape image of the carbon nanobelt appeared on the screen. Itami, Segawa and Povie expressed their joy with a high five (movie: https:/ ). "It was one of the most exciting moments in my life and I will never forget it," says Itami. "Since this is the result of a decade-long study, I greatly appreciate all the past and current members of my group for their support and encouragement. Thanks to their skill, toughness, sense and strong will of all members, we achieved this successful result." The synthesized carbon nanobelt is a red-colored solid and exhibits deep red fluorescence. Analysis by X-ray crystallography revealed that the carbon nanobelt has a cylindrical shape in the same manner as carbon nanotubes. The researchers also measured its light absorption and emission, electric conductivity and structural rigidity by ultraviolet-visible absorption fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopic studies, as well as theoretical calculations. "Actually, the synthesis part was finished last August but I could not rest until I was able to confirm the X-ray structure of the carbon nanobelt," says Povie. "I was really happy when I saw the X-ray structure." The carbon nanobelt will be released to the market in the future. "We are looking forward to discovering new properties and functionalities of the carbon nanobelt with researchers from all over the world," say Segawa and Itami. This article "Synthesis of a carbon nanobelt" by Guillaume Povie, Yasutomo Segawa, Taishi Nishihara, Yuhei Miyauchi and Kenichiro Itami is published online in Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.aam8158 JST-ERATO Itami Molecular Nanocarbon Project was launched at Nagoya University in April 2014. This is a 5-year project that seeks to open the new field of nanocarbon science. This project entails the design and synthesis of as-yet largely unexplored nanocarbons as structurally well-defined molecules, and the development of novel, highly functional materials based on these nanocarbons. Researchers combine chemical and physical methods to achieve the controlled synthesis of well-defined uniquely structured nanocarbon materials, and conduct interdisciplinary research encompassing the control of molecular arrangement and orientation, structural and functional analysis, and applications in devices and biology. The goal of this project is to design, synthesize, utilize, and understand nanocarbons as molecules. The Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (ITbM) at Nagoya University in Japan is committed to advance the integration of synthetic chemistry, plant/animal biology and theoretical science, all of which are traditionally strong fields in the university. ITbM is one of the research centers of the Japanese MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) program, the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI). The aim of ITbM is to develop transformative bio-molecules, innovative functional molecules capable of bringing about fundamental change to biological science and technology. Research at ITbM is carried out in a "Mix-Lab" style, where international young researchers from various fields work together side-by-side in the same lab, enabling interdisciplinary interaction. Through these endeavors, ITbM will create "transformative bio-molecules" that will dramatically change the way of research in chemistry, biology and other related fields to solve urgent problems, such as environmental issues, food production and medical technology that have a significant impact on the society. ERATO (The Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology), one of the Strategic Basic Research Programs, aims to form a headstream of science and technology, and ultimately contribute to science, technology, and innovation that will change society and the economy in the future. In ERATO, a Research Director, a principal investigator of ERATO research project, establishes a new research base in Japan and recruits young researchers to implement his or her challenging research project within a limited time frame.


News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Worcester, Mass. - Many complicated neurological disorders appear to have a gender bias. Women, for example, are more likely to develop Alzheimer's disease, while men are at greater risk for Parkinson's disease. Understanding some of the molecular mechanisms that may account for this gender-specific neuronal bias is the aim of a research program at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) funded by a new five-year, $1.6 million award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The project is led by Jagan Srinivasan, PhD, assistant professor of biology and biotechnology at WPI, and principal investigator for the new grant. "If we can understand the differences in the basic neurobiology of males and females, then perhaps that knowledge will help us devise better treatment strategies for neurological disorders that have a gender bias," he said. The research will be conducted using the small, soil-dwelling worms known as Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). An adult C. elegans is about 1 millimeter long and has approximately 1,000 cells, about a third of which are dedicated to its nervous system. Despite its small size, the worm is a complex organism capable of carrying out all of the processes required for animal survival, including foraging for food and seeking out mates, making it one of the most powerful research models in molecular biology. Most C. elegans worms are self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, carrying both egg and sperm cells. But a very small percentage of the C. elegans population is fully male (there are no fully female C. elegans worms). Srinivasan will use that gender differentiation to explore varying neural activity, focusing on a cluster of neurons that allow the worms to "smell" cues from their environment. "It is known that in human cases of Alzheimer's, a diminished sense of smell is one of the early symptoms of the disease," said Srinivasan, whose earlier research analyzed the electrical activity of sensory neurons located near the male worm's head that detect and process olfactory cues and allow them to navigate their environment and find a mate. "So, focusing on understanding the circuit mechanisms that show gender differences in the worm's olfactory system may give us new information that is relevant for what is seen in human neuropathology." In previous studies, Srinivasan discovered a novel sensory circuit with feedback loops involving four worm neurons that process environmental cues. In the newly funded project, Srinivasan and colleagues will dig deeper into the molecular mechanisms that actuate the olfactory nerve circuitry in the male worms, seeking to identify the specific neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved. The project will also study how signals propagate through the worms' neural circuits following an olfactory cue to affect behavior. The male-specific findings will then be compared to the activity in hermaphrodite worms. Dirk Albrecht, PhD, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at WPI, a co-investigator of the grant, also studies how neuronal signals govern behavior using the worm model. He has developed several imaging technologies and data processing algorithms that allow for visualizing specific neuronal activity in free moving worms. "The new project seeks to image multiple neurons, in multiple worms, responding to multiple stimuli in real time. And we know the responses will be different in each animal," Albrecht said. "That means we need to develop new technologies to push the existing boundaries of imaging throughput and analysis to handle the experimental load. That makes this an exciting and important challenge." The Srinivasan and Albrecht labs are part of the growing "worm community" at WPI, and the imaging and bioinformatics technologies developed through their work will become enhanced platforms promoting further interdisciplinary research programs across the WPI Life Sciences and Bioengineering Center. "We are very fortunate to have Dirk and his team right down the hall to collaborate with," Srinivasan said. "It's a great example of the interdisciplinary research work--blending science and engineering--that is possible here at WPI." Founded in 1865 in Worcester, Mass., WPI is one of the nation's first engineering and technology universities. Its 14 academic departments offer more than 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science, engineering, technology, business, the social sciences, and the humanities and arts, leading to bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees. WPI's talented faculty work with students on interdisciplinary research that seeks solutions to important and socially relevant problems in fields as diverse as the life sciences and bioengineering, energy, information security, materials processing, and robotics. Students also have the opportunity to make a difference to communities and organizations around the world through the university's innovative Global Projects Program. There are more than 40 WPI project centers throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Europe.


News Article | May 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Many complicated neurological disorders appear to have a gender bias. Women, for example, are more likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease, while men are at greater risk for Parkinson’s disease. Understanding some of the molecular mechanisms that may account for this gender-specific neuronal bias is the aim of a research program at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) funded by a new five-year, $1.6 million award from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The project is led by Jagan Srinivasan, PhD, assistant professor of biology and biotechnology at WPI, and principal investigator for the new grant. “If we can understand the differences in the basic neurobiology of males and females, then perhaps that knowledge will help us devise better treatment strategies for neurological disorders that have a gender bias,” he said. The research will be conducted using the small, soil-dwelling worms known as Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). An adult C. elegans is about 1 millimeter long and has approximately 1,000 cells, about a third of which are dedicated to its nervous system. Despite its small size, the worm is a complex organism capable of carrying out all of the processes required for animal survival, including foraging for food and seeking out mates, making it one of the most powerful research models in molecular biology. Most C. elegans worms are self-fertilizing hermaphrodites, carrying both egg and sperm cells. But a very small percentage of the C. elegans population is fully male (there are no fully female C. elegans worms). Srinivasan will use that gender differentiation to explore varying neural activity, focusing on a cluster of neurons that allow the worms to “smell” cues from their environment. “It is known that in human cases of Alzheimer’s, a diminished sense of smell is one of the early symptoms of the disease,” said Srinivasan, whose earlier research analyzed the electrical activity of sensory neurons located near the male worm’s head that detect and process olfactory cues and allow them to navigate their environment and find a mate. “So, focusing on understanding the circuit mechanisms that show gender differences in the worm’s olfactory system may give us new information that is relevant for what is seen in human neuropathology.” In previous studies, Srinivasan discovered a novel sensory circuit with feedback loops involving four worm neurons that process environmental cues. In the newly funded project, Srinivasan and colleagues will dig deeper into the molecular mechanisms that actuate the olfactory nerve circuitry in the male worms, seeking to identify the specific neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved. The project will also study how signals propagate through the worms’ neural circuits following an olfactory cue to affect behavior. The male-specific findings will then be compared to the activity in hermaphrodite worms. Dirk Albrecht, PhD, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at WPI, a co-investigator of the grant, also studies how neuronal signals govern behavior using the worm model. He has developed several imaging technologies and data processing algorithms that allow for visualizing specific neuronal activity in free moving worms. “The new project seeks to image multiple neurons, in multiple worms, responding to multiple stimuli in real time. And we know the responses will be different in each animal,” Albrecht said. “That means we need to develop new technologies to push the existing boundaries of imaging throughput and analysis to handle the experimental load. That makes this an exciting and important challenge.” The Srinivasan and Albrecht labs are part of the growing “worm community” at WPI, and the imaging and bioinformatics technologies developed through their work will become enhanced platforms promoting further interdisciplinary research programs across the WPI Life Sciences and Bioengineering Center. “We are very fortunate to have Dirk and his team right down the hall to collaborate with,” Srinivasan said. “It’s a great example of the interdisciplinary research work, blending science and engineering, that is possible here at WPI.” Founded in 1865 in Worcester, Mass., WPI is one of the nation’s first engineering and technology universities. Its 14 academic departments offer more than 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science, engineering, technology, business, the social sciences, and the humanities and arts, leading to bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral degrees. WPI’s talented faculty work with students on interdisciplinary research that seeks solutions to important and socially relevant problems in fields as diverse as the life sciences and bioengineering, energy, information security, materials processing, and robotics. Students also have the opportunity to make a difference to communities and organizations around the world through the university’s innovative Global Projects Program. There are more than 40 WPI project centers throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia-Pacific, and Europe.


News Article | May 18, 2017
Site: motherboard.vice.com

To stay off the radar when leaking information to the press, whistleblowers often turn to the dark web to mask their identity. But that's no match for a new malicious app that spies on your computer hardware, and can tell when you've visited whistleblower sites through the Tor Browser. Thankfully, this revelation doesn't come from hackers. Instead, the app was developed by computer scientists at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), and they uploaded a paper outlining their work to the arXiv preprint server last week. Their app makes use of a well-known attack in academic circles: if you carefully track and analyze the patterns of use on a computer's processor, you can piece together what the user is actually doing. Now, the researchers have shown that it can be done with a malicious app running in the background on someone's machine, and a bit of AI. "You might protect your browsing habits by going into incognito mode or using the Tor Browser—the traffic there is hidden from, say, your IT admin," said Berk Sunar, one of the study's co-authors, over the phone. "What we're showing here is that in that unprotected corporate environment, even using tools like Tor, your browsing history can be leaked in part to a monitoring authority." Read More: Tor Project and Mozilla Making It Harder for Malware to Unmask Users The researchers used Linux, which allowed them to access the data they needed (a rooted Windows or Mac system could allow similar access, Sunar said). They first tracked processor usage with the app while browsing different sites in Chrome in incognito mode, and in Tor, the browser that lets you access the dark web. An AI algorithm then parsed all of this data to come up with a baseline to predict which sites a user visited. After training, the algorithm could look at new hardware use patterns via the app and predict whether a user had visited Netflix or Amazon with surprising accuracy: 86.3 percent for Chrome in Incognito mode. In Tor, the system was less accurate, but only slightly. Just by looking at hardware use and analyzing it with an algorithm, the researchers could infer which websites were being accessed via Tor with 71 percent accuracy. When it came to whistleblower sites like Wikileaks and GlobalLeaks, the system's accuracy jumped to 84 percent. The results for Tor were generally worse because the malicious tracking app caught the browser start-up and all the random jitters due to connection delays, creating a noisy dataset. The accuracy was better for whistleblowing sites, Sunar said, simply because it's a much smaller pool of sites to choose from. So, if you're a whistleblower, how worried should you be about the government, or anyone else, using this tool to find you? "In the short term, I'd say not very worried, because there are so many other vulnerabilities out there that are easier to pull off," Sunar said. (The research was government-funded, via the US National Science Foundation, an agency that funds a wide array of research into science and engineering). And remember, these are researchers working in a tightly controlled experimental environment, trying to prove that they can do something nobody's done before—not spooks or hackers trying to make a buck. "You could tie it into a simple gaming application" There's also the fact that the work took place in Linux, which is an extremely unpopular operating system. Taking this mobile, and on a more popular platform like iOS, would take some work. The iPhone's operating system doesn't allow access to the same fine-grain detail Linux allows, but there are other hardware performance indicators that could be folded into the system to work on iOS. "You could tie it into a simple gaming application," Sunar said. "Like Tetris, for example." The attack also requires the user to download a malicious app, and although scammy apps have made it onto major app stores before, there's no guarantee that this one would. You'd also have to be in the crosshairs for someone really, really determined, in which case you might have bigger problems. Still, the research is a good reminder that no privacy tool is perfect, and perhaps most importantly, if you let somebody own your computer, well, you're boned. The lesson remains: don't click any phishy links out there, and be careful what apps you put on your machine. Subscribe to Science Solved It , Motherboard's new show about the greatest mysteries that were solved by science.


News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

(Worcester Polytechnic Institute) When the standard malaria medications failed to help 18 critically ill patients, the attending physician in a Congo clinic acted under the 'compassionate use' doctrine and prescribed a not-yet-approved malaria therapy made only from the dried leaves of the Artemisia annua plant. In just five days, all 18 people fully recovered. This small but stunningly successful trial is detailed in a new paper in Phytomedicine by lead author Pamela Weathers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI).


The United States faces an organ donor shortage. More than 100,000 people are on the national transplant waiting list, but due to unavailability of suitable organs, nearly two dozen of them die every day. Results of a new experiment, however, could pave way for solutions that can eventually help alleviate the shortage of donated organs. Researchers from the Worcester Polytechnic Institute in Massachusetts have successfully converted a spinach leaf into a tiny beating human heart muscle. The experiment, which was described in a study to be published in the May 2017 issue of the journal Biomaterials, involved swapping the plant cells of the leaf for human ones, essentially transforming the plant veins into a blood vessel network. Although it was only a proof-of-concept work, researchers said that their study could serve as a foundation for stitching spinach leaves veins to human blood vessels. The experiment may pave way for breakthroughs that can be useful for those who have damaged heart tissues that are no longer contracting, something that may happen after a person suffers from heart attack. The study could potentially lead to biomedical solutions that can help repair damaged organs. Researchers said they envision implanting a graft into a damaged heart tissue. The human tissue made of spinach leaves may help restore blood flow to areas of the heart that have been damaged by trauma, disease, and infection. The plant-made tissue may work like a sort of patch that gets surgically implanted into a person's heart. "These data demonstrate the potential of decellularized plants as scaffolds for tissue engineering, which could ultimately provide a cost-efficient, 'green' technology for regenerating large volume vascularized tissue mass," researchers wrote in their study. Researchers, though, still have to overcome a number of challenges. For one, they need to make sure that plant scaffolds such as the one that they created would not be rejected once already inside the body of the human host. The leaves of the spinach are also delicate, so researchers need to make stronger hybrids of the heart spinach. The researchers also acknowledged that at the moment, it is unclear how plant vasculature can be integrated to those of humans and whether or not there would be an immune response. Despite this, the researchers believe that the scaffold they developed can help treat patients, and while there are still a lot more work needed to make this possible, the results are so far promising. "To be able to just take something as simple as a spinach leaf, which is an abundant plant, and actually turn that into a tissue that has the potential for blood to flow through it, is really very very exciting, and we hope it's going to be a significant advancement in the field," said study researcher Glenn Gaudette from the WPI. Besides spinach, researchers may also use other plants such as broccoli and cauliflower, which have three-dimensional structure comparable to those of the lungs. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


The paper, "'Hummingbird' floral traits interact synergistically to discourage visitation by bumble bee foragers," demonstrates that traits of so-called "hummingbird flowers" work together to confuse bees and cost them precious time as they move from flower to flower. This extra cost leads most bees to seek nectar rewards from floral alternatives that they can more easily exploit, thus enabling the plants to more effectively attract more efficient hummingbird pollinators. Most hummingbird-pollinated flowers evolved from bee-pollinated ancestors, according to lead author Robert J. Gegear, assistant professor of biology and biotechnology at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). While the "bee" floral variants tend to be upright and have blue or purple coloration, the "bird" variants have a horizontal orientation and red or orange coloration. Also, bee flowers typically contain small amounts of concentrated nectar, while bird flowers have larger amounts of dilute nectar. While it has long been thought that the characteristics of bird flowers operate independently to make it difficult for bees to access their nectar (or in the case of the red coloration, to even see the flowers), Gegear's research shows that, in fact, the traits interact synergistically to encourage bees to look elsewhere for nectar rewards. In the laboratory, Gegear and his students observed the behavior of foraging bees using arrays of paper flowers that mimicked the blooms of Mimulus lewisii (purple monkey flower), which is pollinated primarily by bumblebees, and a related species, Mimulus cardinalis (scarlet monkey flower), which is pollinated primarily by hummingbirds. They tested three characteristics—color, orientation, and nectar reward—in various combinations. They found that bees readily visited upright flowers, regardless of their color, as well as lavender flowers, regardless of their orientation. However, when red flowers were placed in the horizontal orientation and lavender flowers were placed in a vertical orientation—mimicking the natural flowers of Mimulus cardinalis and Mimulus lewisii—visits by foraging bumblebees dropped dramatically. Similar effects were observed when red coloration and dilute nectar were combined, showing that floral display and reward traits also interact to discourage bee visitation. Bumblebees, like most pollinators, are not genetically programmed to visit only particular flowers, Gegear says. They are generalists that seek to maximize their rate of reward intake. But the ideal pollinator, from the plant's perspective, is one that adopts a specialist foraging strategy, since that will help assure that each plant receives only pollen from its own species. By combining particular floral characteristics, plants manipulate pollinators to become specialists by making generalization a less economically attractive option. Gegear says his study shows that at least two floral characteristics had to change for the bird flower Mimulus cardinalis to evolve from the bee flower Mimulus lewisii, and that those changes served to discourage bees. To learn why bees avoid the bird flowers, Gegear set up a different experiment in his lab. He first had bees forage on arrays of paper flowers, all of which were of the same color and orientation. Every flower contained a sugar reward. During these runs each bee learned to associate every color and orientation combination with a reward. Next, the same bees foraged on mixed arrays in which one color-orientation combination contained nectar and the other combinations contained distilled water. Gegear and his students watched to see how long it took the bees to learn which flowers were worth visiting. Once they were able to make the right choice 80 percent of the time, they observed the next 20 flower visits, noting the time interval between flower visits and the number of times the bees visited non-rewarding flowers. They found that it was much more difficult for bees to learn and effectively locate bird-trait combinations than bee-trait combinations, a response that was not predicted based on the response observed when each trait was presented in isolation. "These data suggests that the reason bee-to-bird evolutionary transitions are often accompanied by a floral shift to classic 'bird' trait complexes is because bees have a particularly difficult time combining red with other sensory traits, including nectar rewards," he says. "It takes them longer to learn to seek out these combinations, and once they learn them, it takes them longer to recognize these flowers. Thus, bees avoid bird flowers in mixed floral environments because it makes economic sense for them to do so. When you put all this together, you find that 'bird flowers' are really 'anti-bee flowers' that function by exploiting specific sensory and cognitive limitations." Gegear says the study offers a new perspective on prevailing theories about how plants evolve to manipulate their animal pollinators. "From an ecological perspective, an ideal pollinator is one that always forages on flowers of the same type so pollen is transferred effectively. In reality, pollinators are generalists and they should simply forage randomly. So the big question has been, how do plants get the pollinators to do what they want? "The answer lies in floral complexity. Each plant has a flower made up of a unique combination of sensory and structural traits that pollinators must learn and remember in order to effectively locate nectar rewards. However, pollinators are limited in their ability to manage information on more than one unique combination at a time, making generalization a costly foraging strategy. In the case of the two species of Mimulus, the costs associated with bird combinations are much greater than the costs associated with bee combinations, so bees avoid them to increase their foraging efficiency." Explore further: Bees use colour-coding to collect pollen and nectar More information: Robert J. Gegear et al, "Hummingbird" floral traits interact synergistically to discourage visitation by bumble bee foragers, Ecology (2017). DOI: 10.1002/ecy.1661


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

RacingJunk.com, the world's largest online motorsports marketplace, is glad to announce a partnership with the National Tractor Pullers Association (NTPA). RacingJunk.com will become the official classifieds of NTPA, which will support greater awareness and attendance of NTPA events while extending RacingJunk.com’s reach to competitors and fans who can benefit from its services. The flagship website of Motorhead Media, Racingjunk.com is a “one-stop shop” for anyone looking to buy, sell, trade or interact with people throughout the automotive and racing and performance communities. With more than 850,000 registered members and 28,000 classified ads, the website generates over two million visits every month. Established in 1969 by representatives from eight states, the NTPA is the sport’s oldest and most respected truck and tractor pulling sanctioning organization. The NTPA is managed by World Pulling International (WPI), an independently owned entity, and governed by a board of directors. Headquartered in Worthington, Ohio, the NTPA provides rules and regulations and the infrastructures required for organizations throughout the country to arrange truck and tractor pulls. “We are thrilled to work with RacingJunk.com,” said a representative from the NTPA. “We want all motorsports fans to see what the NTPA is about, and if you love motorsports then you will be interested in Racing Junk. Fans will witness massive amounts of horsepower at an NTPA event, from 4000+ HP Diesel Pro Stock tractors to Modified Tractors with five supercharged hemis.” Jim Sweener, Director of Sales for RacingJunk, said, "We’re thrilled about our partnership with the NTPA. RacingJunk.com’s dedicated truck and tractor pulling section is one of the most popular up-and-coming sections on our site, and we’re certain our community of fans and enthusiasts will appreciate the chance to see the great events the NTPA helps organize." To learn about the NTPA, visit their website at NTPAPull.com. For more information on RacingJunk.com, go to http://www.racingjunk.com.

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