Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry

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Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry

United States

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Brown M.F.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Mitton-Fry M.J.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Arcari J.T.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Barham R.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | And 28 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

Herein we describe the structure-aided design and synthesis of a series of pyridone-conjugated monobactam analogues with in vitro antibacterial activity against clinically relevant Gram-negative species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Rat pharmacokinetic studies with compound 17 demonstrate low clearance and low plasma protein binding. In addition, evidence is provided for a number of analogues suggesting that the siderophore receptors PiuA and PirA play a role in drug uptake in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Bhattacharya S.K.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Andrews K.,Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research Unit | Beveridge R.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Cameron K.O.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | And 24 more authors.
ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2014

The identification of potent, highly selective orally bioavailable ghrelin receptor inverse agonists from a spiro-azetidino-piperidine series is described. Examples from this series have promising in vivo pharmacokinetics and increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in human whole and dispersed islets. A physicochemistry-based strategy to increase lipophilic efficiency for ghrelin receptor potency and retain low clearance and satisfactory permeability while reducing off-target pharmacology led to the discovery of 16h. Compound 16h has a superior balance of ghrelin receptor pharmacology and off-target selectivity. On the basis of its promising pharmacological and safety profile, 16h was advanced to human clinical trials. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

PubMed | Pfizer, Structural Biology, Primary Pharmacology Group, Metabolic and Endocrine Diseases Research Unit and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2015

A novel series of spirocyclic-diamine based, isoform non-selective inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is described. These spirodiamine derivatives were discovered by design of a library to mimic the structural rigidity and hydrogen-bonding pattern observed in the co-crystal structure of spirochromanone inhibitor I. The lead compound 3.5.1 inhibited de novo lipogenesis in rat hepatocytes, with an IC50 of 0.30 M.

PubMed | Pharmacokinetics, Metabolic &Endocrine Disease Research Unit and Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Citrate is a key regulatory metabolic intermediate as it facilitates the integration of the glycolysis and lipid synthesis pathways. Inhibition of hepatic extracellular citrate uptake, by blocking the sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT or SLC13A5), has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach to treat metabolic disorders. NaCT transports citrate from the blood into the cell coupled to the transport of sodium ions. The studies herein report the identification and characterization of a novel small dicarboxylate molecule (compound 2) capable of selectively and potently inhibiting citrate transport through NaCT, both in vitro and in vivo. Binding and transport experiments indicate that 2 specifically binds NaCT in a competitive and stereosensitive manner, and is recognized as a substrate for transport by NaCT. The favorable pharmacokinetic properties of 2 permitted in vivo experiments to evaluate the effect of inhibiting hepatic citrate uptake on metabolic endpoints.

PubMed | Pfizer, Pharmacokinetics and WorldWide Medicinal Chemistry
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters | Year: 2015

A 1,2,4-triazole motif was employed as a bioisostere for the ester commonly used in muscarinic antagonists, and subsequent integrative conjugation to a 2 agonist quinolinone furnished a new class of bifunctional MABAs for the treatment of COPD. Medicinal chemistry optimization using the principles of inhalation by design furnished a clinical candidate with desirable pharmacological, pharmacokinetic and biopharmaceutical properties.

Millan D.S.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Bunnage M.E.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | Burrows J.L.,Sandwich | Butcher K.J.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

This paper describes the identification and optimization of a novel series of DFG-out binding p38 inhibitors as inhaled agents for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Structure based drug design and "inhalation by design" principles have been applied to the optimization of the lead series exemplied by compound 1a. Analogues have been designed to be potent and selective for p38, with an emphasis on slow enzyme dissociation kinetics to deliver prolonged lung p38 inhibition. Pharmacokinetic properties were tuned with high intrinsic clearance and low oral bioavailability in mind, to minimize systemic exposure and reduce systemically driven adverse events. High CYP mediated clearance and glucuronidation were targeted to achieve high intrinsic clearance coupled with multiple routes of clearance to minimize drug-drug interactions. Furthermore, pharmaceutical properties such as stability, crystallinity, and solubility were considered to ensure compatibility with a dry powder inhaler. 1ab (PF-03715455) was subsequently identified as a clinical candidate from this series with efficacy and safety profiles confirming its potential as an inhaled agent for the treatment of COPD. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Heifetz A.,Evotec | Storer R.I.,Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry | McMurray G.,Pfizer | James T.,Evotec | And 4 more authors.
ACS Chemical Biology | Year: 2016

Agonism of the 5-HT2C serotonin receptor has been associated with the treatment of a number of diseases including obesity, psychiatric disorders, sexual health, and urology. However, the development of effective 5-HT2C agonists has been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining selectivity over the closely related 5-HT2B receptor, agonism of which is associated with irreversible cardiac valvulopathy. Understanding how to design selective agonists requires exploration of the structural features governing the functional uniqueness of the target receptor relative to related off targets. X-ray crystallography, the major experimental source of structural information, is a slow and challenging process for integral membrane proteins, and so is currently not feasible for every GPCR or GPCR-ligand complex. Therefore, the integration of existing ligand SAR data with GPCR modeling can be a practical alternative to provide this essential structural insight. To demonstrate this, we integrated SAR data from 39 azepine series 5-HT2C agonists, comprising both selective and unselective examples, with our hierarchical GPCR modeling protocol (HGMP). Through this work we have been able to demonstrate how relatively small differences in the amino acid sequences of GPCRs can lead to significant differences in secondary structure and function, as supported by experimental data. In particular, this study suggests that conformational differences in the tilt of TM7 between 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C, which result from differences in interhelical interactions, may be the major source of selectivity in G-protein activation between these two receptors. Our approach also demonstrates how the use of GPCR models in conjunction with SAR data can be used to explain activity cliffs. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

Luerman G.C.,Pfizer | Nguyen C.,Structural Biology and Biophysics | Samaroo H.,Pfizer | Loos P.,Pfizer | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

Genetic mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been linked to autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. The most prevalent mutation, G2019S, results in enhanced LRRK2 kinase activity that potentially contributes to the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Consequently, disease progression is potentially mediated by poorly characterized phosphorylation-dependent LRRK2 substrate pathways. To address this gap in knowledge, we transduced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with LRRK2 G2019S via adenovirus, then determined quantitative changes in the phosphoproteome upon LRRK2 kinase inhibition (LRRK2-IN-1 treatment) using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in culture combined with phosphopeptide enrichment and LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 776 phosphorylation sites that were increased or decreased at least 50% in response to LRRK2-IN-1 treatment, including sites on proteins previously known to associate with LRRK2. Bioinformatic analysis of those phosphoproteins suggested a potential role for LRRK2 kinase activity in regulating pro-inflammatory responses and neurite morphology, among other pathways. In follow-up experiments, LRRK2-IN-1 inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) levels in astrocytes and also enhanced multiple neurite characteristics in primary neuronal cultures. However, LRRK2-IN-1 had almost identical effects in primary glial and neuronal cultures from LRRK2 knockout mice. These data suggest LRRK2-IN-1 may inhibit pathways of perceived LRRK2 pathophysiological function independently of LRRK2 highlighting the need to use multiple pharmacological tools and genetic approaches in studies determining LRRK2 function. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

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