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Tolaymat T.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | El Badawy A.,Pegasus Technical Services Inc. | Sequeira R.,University of Cincinnati | Genaidy A.,Worldtek Inc
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

There is an urgent need for a trans-disciplinary approach for the collective evaluation of engineered nanomaterial (ENM) benefits and risks. Currently, research studies are mostly focused on examining effects at individual endpoints with emphasis on ENM risk effects. Less research work is pursuing the integration needed to advance the science of sustainable ENMs. Therefore, the primary objective of this article is to discuss the system-of-systems (SoS) approach as a broad and integrated paradigm to examine ENM benefits and risks to society, environment, and economy (SEE) within a sustainability context. The aims are focused on: (a) current approaches in the scientific literature and the need for a broad and integrated approach, (b) documentation of ENM SoS in terms of architecture and governing rules and practices within sustainability context, and (c) implementation plan for the road ahead. In essence, the SoS architecture is a communication vehicle offering the opportunity to track benefits and risks in an integrated fashion so as to understand the implications and make decisions about advancing the science of sustainable ENMs. In support of the SoS architecture, we propose using an analytic-based decision support system consisting of a knowledge base and analytic engine along the benefit and risk informatics routes in the SEE system to build sound decisions on what constitutes sustainable and unsustainable ENMs in spite of the existing uncertainties and knowledge gaps. The work presented herein is neither a systematic review nor a critical appraisal of the scientific literature. Rather, it is a position paper that largely expresses the views of the authors based on their expert opinion drawn from industrial and academic experience. © 2014.

Jaworek M.,Chair for Psychology of Management and Ergonomics | Marek T.,Chair for Psychology of Management and Ergonomics | Karwowski W.,University of Central Florida | Andrzejczak C.,University of Central Florida | Genaidy A.M.,Worldtek Inc
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics | Year: 2010

The present study tested the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of work-related factors, factors such as work demands and work stimuli, on the frequency of musculoskeletal complaints among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 237 nurses from various wards across 4 hospitals located in southwestern Poland. Data was collected through three questionnaires. One of the questionnaires measured work-related factors and contained elements that afforded factor analysis. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that work demands were positively related to burnout syndrome and musculoskeletal complaints, higher work stimuli were associated with lower burnout, but with higher musculoskeletal complaints, and burnout was positively associated with musculoskeletal complaints. Relevance to industry: Results of this study illuminate the possible mediating role of professional burnout in the development of work-related musculoskeletal complaints - one of the most common occupational disorders in industrialized countries. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Tegenaw A.,University of Cincinnati | Tolaymat T.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Al-Abed S.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | El Badawy A.,Pegasus Technical Services Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2015

This exploratory study aimed to examine the extent and mineral speciation of nanosized Cu in two fungicide products (A and B) available in the U.S. markets. Electron microcopy results demonstrated the presence of spherical and polydisperse <100 nm Cu particles in product B. Other elements (e.g., Pb, Na, Ca, and S) were found in both products. Mineral speciation analysis indicated the dominance of spertiniite followed by cornetite and then malachite in product A. In product B, spertiniite and tenorite were the dominant Cu species followed by cornetite and malachite. Tenorite in product B (∼30%, <450 nm) has the potential for stronger toxicological impacts relative to those of other Cu minerals in the tested products. For both products, the particle hydrodynamic diameter was impacted by changes in environmental parameters (pH, ionic strength, and background electrolyte) in Milli-Q water and humic acid suspensions. However, a minimal impact was observed in polyvinylpyrrolidone suspensions. The findings are critically important for estimating the fate and transport of Cu particles in different environmental scenarios as well as allowing a more accurate assessment of their risk that is largely impacted by chemical speciation and size. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

Tolaymat T.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | El Badawy A.,Pegasus Technical Services Inc. | Sequeira R.,University of Cincinnati | Genaidy A.,Worldtek Inc
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2015

There is an urgent need for broad and integrated studies that address the risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) along the different endpoints of the society, environment, and economy (SEE) complex adaptive system. This article presents an integrated science-based methodology to assess the potential risks of engineered nanomaterials. To achieve the study objective, two major tasks are accomplished, knowledge synthesis and algorithmic computational methodology. The knowledge synthesis task is designed to capture "what is known" and to outline the gaps in knowledge from ENMs risk perspective. The algorithmic computational methodology is geared toward the provision of decisions and an understanding of the risks of ENMs along different endpoints for the constituents of the SEE complex adaptive system. The approach presented herein allows for addressing the formidable task of assessing the implications and risks of exposure to ENMs, with the long term goal to build a decision-support system to guide key stakeholders in the SEE system towards building sustainable ENMs and nano-enabled products. © 2015.

Tolaymat T.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Abdelraheem W.,Worldtek Inc | Abdelraheem W.,Sohag University | El Badawy A.,Worldtek Inc | And 2 more authors.
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy | Year: 2016

Economic value is no longer adequate by itself as a proxy for the value-added benefits (VAB) assumed to be generated by emerging technologies such as engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). This study was conducted to explore the potential to establish an integrated sociotechnical framework with the end goal to assess whether or not ENMs and nano-enabled products contribute VAB. Based on the research in this study, it is suggested that all stakeholders in the larger society–environment–economy (SEE) system should develop an understanding of the multiple interrelationships within and between the diverse constituents along the particle lifecycle trajectory to capture their influence on the system benefit and risk outcomes. Furthermore, the sociotechnical framework establishes an additional three-step process: (1) at the pre-design stage, the test of VAB should be assessed using an expert panel representing the different segments of SEE, the social principles of design are detailed and customized to the needs of ENMs and nano-enabled products, and an economic appraisal is conducted to justify the VAB on material grounds; (2) at the design stage, the technical principles should be examined and detailed to ensure the compatibility of stakeholder needs; and (3) an iterative adaptive cycle should be conducted to re-examine the sociotechnical principles on a periodic basis. Within this context, ENMs are considered sustainable when (a) the conditions of VAB and minimal risk elements are satisfied in a sequential order, with VAB demonstrated at the pre-design stage, then at the design stage ENMs posing no harm greater than minimal levels to the SEE constituents; and (b) ENMs and nano-enabled products are bounded by a finite time limit. In addition, to reach the conditions of sustainability, the role of all SEE stakeholders should be broadened (e.g., regulatory agencies should transform their roles from not only the control of risks of negative implications, but also the establishment of positive implications as well). © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

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