Maxwell D.,Tufts University |
Bailey S.,Overseas Development Institute (ODI) |
Harvey P.,Overseas Development Institute (ODI) |
Walker P.,Tufts University |
And 2 more authors.
Disasters | Year: 2012
Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability-downwards and upwards-but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012. Source
Hirose A.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Borchert M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Borchert M.,Charite - Medical University of Berlin |
Niksear H.,Regional Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology | Year: 2012
Background: Many pregnant women in resource-poor countries seek care only after developing severe complications during childbirth at home and often reach health facilities in moribund conditions. The objectives were to (i) investigate the association between care-seeking duration and fetal survival at admission; and (ii) assess the significance of care-seeking duration in relation to other determinants. Methods: Data were analysed for 266 women who were pregnant with a singleton and admitted in life-threatening conditions to the maternity ward of Herat Regional Hospital in Afghanistan from February 2007 to January 2008. Information about the women's care-seeking durations, social and financial resources, reproductive factors, household economic status and household types were collected during interviews with the women and their husbands. Information about fetal heartbeats at admission was extracted from the women's medical records. Results: Fifty-four per cent of the women had a decision delay lasting 3 h or more; 69% had a transport delay lasting 3 h or more. Multivariable logistic regression analyses suggest that a decision delay lasting an hour or more increased the odds of fetal death by 6.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6, 26.3) compared with a delay less than 1 h. A woman's lack of financial autonomy and a distance from her natal home increased the odds of fetal death by 3.1 [95% CI 1.1, 8.4] and 2.5 [95% CI 1.0, 6.3] respectively. Conclusion: An integrated approach to improving fetal and maternal health from pre-pregnancy through childbirth (including increasing women's social and financial resources) is crucial particularly where senior family members act as gatekeepers to women's access to health care. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source
Naimoli J.F.,United States Agency for International Development |
Frymus D.E.,United States Agency for International Development |
Wuliji T.,Bethesda University |
Franco L.M.,EnCompass LLC |
Newsome M.H.,World Vision International
Human Resources for Health | Year: 2014
Background: There has been a resurgence of interest in national Community Health Worker (CHW) programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A lack of strong research evidence persists, however, about the most efficient and effective strategies to ensure optimal, sustained performance of CHWs at scale. To facilitate learning and research to address this knowledge gap, the authors developed a generic CHW logic model that proposes a theoretical causal pathway to improved performance. The logic model draws upon available research and expert knowledge on CHWs in LMICs.Methods: Construction of the model entailed a multi-stage, inductive, two-year process. It began with the planning and implementation of a structured review of the existing research on community and health system support for enhanced CHW performance. It continued with a facilitated discussion of review findings with experts during a two-day consultation. The process culminated with the authors' review of consultation-generated documentation, additional analysis, and production of multiple iterations of the model. Results: The generic CHW logic model posits that optimal CHW performance is a function of high quality CHW programming, which is reinforced, sustained, and brought to scale by robust, high-performing health and community systems, both of which mobilize inputs and put in place processes needed to fully achieve performance objectives. Multiple contextual factors can influence CHW programming, system functioning, and CHW performance. Conclusions: The model is a novel contribution to current thinking about CHWs. It places CHW performance at the center of the discussion about CHW programming, recognizes the strengths and limitations of discrete, targeted programs, and is comprehensive, reflecting the current state of both scientific and tacit knowledge about support for improving CHW performance. The model is also a practical tool that offers guidance for continuous learning about what works. Despite the model's limitations and several challenges in translating the potential for learning into tangible learning, the CHW generic logic model provides a solid basis for exploring and testing a causal pathway to improved performance. © 2014 Naimoli et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source
World Vision International | Date: 2013-03-05
computer software to track, monitor, collect and analyze data concerning provision and distribution of aid; computer application software for tablets, mobile phones and hand held devices to track, monitor, collect and analyze data concerning provision and distribution of aid.
World Vision International | Date: 2012-10-22
Caregiver kits comprising medication, namely, antifungal creams, pain relievers, and supplies, namely, disposable latex gloves, petroleum jelly, antibacterial soap, cotton balls, water purifying sachets, oral rehydration salts, washcloths, flashlights, batteries for caring for the sick. Motion picture film and photographic slides, prerecorded audio and video cassettes, compact discs, DVDs and downloadable electronic magazines and newsletters pertaining to hunger relief, poverty relief, medical assistance, clean water projects, disease prevention, homelessness, housing development, assistance to refugees, child sponsorship, humanitarian assistance, economic and community development, human rights, social justice, peace and conflict, domestic violence, childrens rights, Christianity, religion, and spirituality. Printed brochures, newsletters, pamphlets, news releases, and magazines in the fields of hunger relief, poverty relief, medical assistance, clean water projects, disease prevention, homelessness, housing development, assistance to refugees, child sponsorship, humanitarian assistance, economic and community development, human rights, social justice, peace and conflict, domestic violence, childrens rights, Christianity, religion, and spirituality. Mail order catalog services and online catalog ordering services featuring soccer balls, basketballs, bicycles, fishing rods, wheelchairs, crutches, textbooks, bibles, educational games, backpacks, clothing, namely, shirts, pants, jackets, shoes, sewing machines, blankets, fruit trees, livestock, water pumps, plows; Promoting public awareness of the need to assist people suffering from hunger, malnutrition, poverty, homelessness, disease, natural disasters, war, violence, and social injustice. Charitable fundraising services for community development, humanitarian programs and religious programs; charitable services, namely, providing financial assistance to needy children through child sponsorship; Providing charitable fundraising services and information about charitable fundraising via a global communications network; Charitable services, namely, providing financial assistance to victims of diseases and disasters. Production of programs pertaining to hunger relief, poverty relief, medical assistance, clean water projects, disease prevention, homelessness, housing development, assistance to refugees, child sponsorship, humanitarian assistance, economic and community development, human rights, social justice, peace and conflict, domestic violence, childrens rights, Christianity, religion, and spirituality; Academic mentoring of school age children; educational services, namely, mentoring in the fields of health and well-being, life-skills preparedness, values, ethics, social issues, and religion; Charitable services, namely, providing training in the fields of leadership development, management skills, organizational development, operation of charitable organizations, community development, and working with at-risk youth; Charitable services, namely, providing school supplies to needy children and low-income schools; Providing classes, lectures and individual instruction to orphaned children and other persons in the field of non-denominational Christian religious faith.