Kesteren F.V.,University of Salford |
D'Cruze N.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
MacDonald D.W.,University of Oxford
BioScience | Year: 2013
Wildlife trade is a big and burgeoning business, but its welfare impacts have not been studied comprehensively. We review the animal welfare impacts of the wildlife trade as they were reported in the literature between 2006 and 2011. Rarely was the term welfare mentioned, evidence of welfare impact documented, or welfare improvement recommended. Literature focused on mammals and on animals killed on site, for luxury goods or food, and for traditional medicine. Welfare impacts may be underreported, particularly in international, illegal, and wild-caught trade and trade in reptiles. Greater attention should perhaps be paid to the welfare of animals traded alive and in larger numbers (e.g., birds, reptiles, amphibians) and to those-including mammals-potentially subject to greater impacts through live use (e.g., as pets). More evidence-based research is needed. Animal welfare should be integrated with wider issues; collaboration between conservationists and welfarists and the development of health and welfare levers to influence trade offer benefits to both people and wildlife. © 2013 by American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Farnworth M.J.,Unitec Institute of Technology |
Blaszak K.A.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
Hiby E.F.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
Waran N.K.,University of Edinburgh
Animal Welfare | Year: 2012
In many developing nations, dogs (Canis familiaris) present a significant issue in terms of human health, safety and animal welfare. We assessed attitudes towards dogs and their management in Samoa, a developing South Pacific island nation, using a questionnaire. It demonstrated that Samoa has one of the world's highest recorded levels of household dog ownership (88%) but a comparatively low rate of vaccination (12%) and sterilisation (19%). Those interviewed believe dogs were important and should be considered part of the family; however most households reported that their dogs were kept for protection (79%). There was a clear skew in the sex distribution. The dog population showed a strong male bias (71%) suggesting females are removed from the population. Of those surveyed only 16% had received any education about dogs and their management and overall the respondents showed a clear disparity between attitudes and behaviour (eg the majority believe dogs should be vaccinated [81%] yet most dogs in this sample [72%] had never been to a veterinarian). Overall, there was a willingness to manage the free-roaming dog population which was considered by many to be a nuisance, however there were few enforceable mechanisms by which this could occur and most dogs were not confined. Harm or killing of dogs was relatively commonplace with 30% of households reporting they knew someone who had harmed or killed a dog and 26% of respondents indicating they believed harming or killing dogs was good for Samoan society, presumably by reducing problems associated with the free-roaming population. Dog bites were relatively frequent in Samoa and reports from two hospitals indicated a frequency of 37 new bites per annum requiring hospitalisation per 10,000 head of population. Furthermore, this paper outlines strategies and further research that could be considered to improve dog welfare and reduce the need to harm or kill dogs, namely improvements in veterinary provision and dog-focused education. It also considers the need for legislative controls and more research and funding to be made available for small developing nations to explore their animal welfare obligations. © 2012 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Thompson P.B.,Michigan State University |
Appleby M.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
Busch L.,Michigan State University |
Busch L.,Lancaster University |
And 4 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2011
The attributes of egg production that elicit values-based responses include the price and availability of eggs, environmental impacts, food safety or health concerns, and animal welfare. Different social groups have distinct interests regarding the sustainability of egg production that reflect these diverse values. Current scientifically based knowledge about how values and attitudes in these groups can be characterized is uneven and must be derived from studies conducted at varying times and using incomplete study methods. In general, some producer and consumer interests are translated through markets and are mediated by market mechanisms, whereas others are poorly reflected by economic behavior. An array of survey and focus group research has been performed to elicit consumer and activist beliefs about performance goals they would expect from an egg production system. These studies provide evidence that consumers' market behavior may be at odds with their ethical and political beliefs about performance goals. © 2011 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Arechiga Ceballos N.,Institute Of Diagnostico Y Referenda Epidemiologicos |
Karunaratna D.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
Aguilar Setien A.,Hospital Of Pediatria
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2014
Over 90% of human deaths from rabies worldwide are caused by dog bites. Mass vaccination, along with the effective control of dog populations, has been used successfully in industrialised countries to control this disease. A lower success rate in developing countries is due to a number of factors, including vaccination campaigns that do not cover a sufficient number of animals or reach all communities, and a wide biodiversity that increases the number of reservoirs of the rabies virus. Educational programmes are needed, which focus on the commitment involved when acquiring a domestic animal, stating clearly what is required to provide it with a good quality of life. New technologies developed in the industrialised world will not always be successful in less developed countries. Approaches must be adapted to the particular conditions in each country, taking cultural and socio-economic issues into account. Authorities must promote research on dog population dynamics, the development of non-invasive methods to control dog populations and the most efficient, stable and low-cost options for vaccination. Under the One Health model, it is hoped that dog-transmitted human rabies will be accorded high priority as a zoonosis by human health authorities, international authorities and donor agencies to support ambitious eradication goals, particularly those being set in South-East Asia. Well-designed and adequately resourced vaccination programmes, based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines, will have significant animal welfare benefits, due to the availability of improved vaccines (in terms of efficacy, duration of immunity, ease of administration and lower cost), advances in dog population management and the more widespread implementation of the OIE Guidelines on Stray Dog Control. Animal welfare benefits include not only the elimination of pain and suffering caused by the clinical disease itself, but also the avoidance of the indirect impact of inhumane culling when methods are used that have not been approved by the OIE.
Putra A.A.G.,Disease Investigation Center |
Hampson K.,University of Glasgow |
Girardi J.,Bali Animal Welfare Association |
Hiby E.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
And 4 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013
Emergency vaccinations and culling failed to contain an outbreak of rabies in Bali, Indonesia, during 2008-2009. Subsequent island-wide mass vaccination (reaching 70% coverage, >200,000 dogs) led to substantial declines in rabies incidence and spread. However, the incidence of dog bites remains high, and repeat campaigns are necessary to eliminate rabies in Bali.
D'Cruze N.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
Kohler J.,Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt |
Vences M.,TU Braunschweig |
Glaw F.,Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich
Herpetologica | Year: 2010
Recent surveys of the herpetofauna in the rainforest of the Forêt d'Ambre Special Reserve, northern Madagascar, revealed a distinctive fossorial microhylid anuran species of the genus Rhombophryne. The new species is characterized by medium size (snout-vent length up to 49 mm in males), a stout body, short legs, and tuberculate skin on dorsal surfaces. It is most similar and closely related to R. testudo from the Sambirano region, but differs mainly by the absence of barbels on the lower lip, a different advertisement call, and a pairwise total sequence divergence of 8.5% the mitochondrial 16S RNA gene. We consider this species to be at particular risk from a conservation perspective because it appears to be endemic to a relatively small area of lowland transitional forest heavily altered by human activities. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria, its threat status is classified as "Endangered." © 2010 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.
Zili J.,Beijing Chaoyang Anhua Animal Product Safety Research Institute APSRI |
Kolesar R.,World Society for the Protection of Animals
Animal Welfare | Year: 2012
The adoption of slaughter and pre-slaughter techniques to improve animal welfare and meat quality and safety is dependent on providing appropriate information, application and enforcement as well as information ownership by local people. The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and Beijing Chaoyang Anhua Animal Product Safety Research Institute (APSRI) have been running a humane slaughter programme in China for more than three years. The aim of the programme is to improve the welfare of animals slaughtered in China through a three-pronged approach: i) train core-plant mid-level managers to be humane slaughter trainers; ii) provide guidance on legislation and codes of practice; and iii) develop and implement pre-slaughter and slaughter animal welfare curricula for undergraduate veterinarians. The production of in-country training material is based on a training-needs analysis conducted prior to the programme. Four Chinese trainers have completed the training and become national level trainers. In the last three years they have trained more than 5,000 staff from 800 slaughterhouses. Technical standards for slaughtering pigs, based on those of the OIE, have been adopted in China and the veterinary curriculum development is progressing. The programme has introduced many positive changes to the Chinese slaughter industry and the signs are positive for good progress. © 2012 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare.
Proctor H.,World Society for the Protection of Animals
Animals | Year: 2012
The science of animal sentience underpins the entire animal welfare movement. Demonstrating objectively what animals are capable of is key to achieving a positive change in attitudes and actions towards animals, and a real, sustainable difference for animal welfare. This paper briefly summarises understanding and acceptance of animal sentience through the ages. Although not an exhaustive history, it highlights some of the leading figures whose opinions and work have most affected perspectives of animal sentience. There follows a review of the current state of animal sentience, what is known, and what the main limitations have been for the development of the study of sentience. The paper concludes with some thoughts for the future of the science, and where it should be going in order to most benefit animal welfare. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Proctor H.S.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
Carder G.,World Society for the Protection of Animals |
Cornish A.R.,World Society for the Protection of Animals
Animals | Year: 2013
Knowledge of animal sentience is fundamental to many disciplines and imperative to the animal welfare movement. In this review, we examined what is being explored and discussed, regarding animal sentience, within the scientific literature. Rather than attempting to extract meaning from the many complex and abstract definitions of animal sentience, we searched over two decades of scientific literature using a peer-reviewed list of 174 keywords. The list consisted of human emotions, terminology associated with animal sentience, and traits often thought to be indicative of subjective states. We discovered that very little was actually being explored, and instead there was already much agreement about what animals can feel. Why then is there so much scepticism surrounding the science of animal sentience? Sentience refers to the subjective states of animals, and so is often thought to be impossible to measure objectively. However, when we consider that much of the research found to accept and utilise animal sentience is performed for the development of human drugs and treatment, it appears that measuring sentience is, after all, not quite as impossible as was previously thought. In this paper, we explored what has been published on animal sentience in the scientific literature and where the gaps in research lie. We drew conclusions on the implications for animal welfare science and argued for the importance of addressing these gaps in our knowledge. We found that there is a need for more research on positive emotional states in animals, and that there is still much to learn about taxa such as invertebrates. Such information will not only be useful in supporting and initiating legislative amendments but will help to increase understanding, and potentially positive actions and attitudes towards animals. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
World Society For The Protection Of Animals | Date: 2013-08-13
Printed matter; printed publications; instructional and teaching material. Clothing, footwear, headgear. Campaigning; promotional and public awareness campaigns. Charitable fundraising; financial grant-making. Education and training services including the conduct of courses to develop knowledge and understanding of animal welfare issues; organizing of events; publishing (including electronic publishing); publication of nondownloadable webpages. Veterinary and other animal welfare services, and advisory, consultancy and information services related to the aforesaid; provision of advice, consultancy and information services in connection with animal welfare and with preventing and alleviating suffering amongst animals.