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La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

Baklanov A.,World Meteorological Organization WMO | Molina L.T.,Molina Center for Energy and the Environment | Gauss M.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lengoasa J.,World Meteorological Organization WMO
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2016

Climate change adaptation is an important issue for water and food security but also to sustainable development in the future. How the weather and climate elements will change in the future under climate change conditions will determine the long-term sustainability of water supplies for food production in many areas. Therefore, it is critical to address the issue of climate variability and change on the impacts on water availability. This paper highlights the following topics: latest scientific understanding on climate change; efforts being made by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) through its network of National Hydrological and Meteorological Services in delivering science based services; establishment of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) which has been established by the WMO in collaboration with other international agencies to provide climate information and services; and need for broader collaboration and cooperation among different development sectors at global as well as regional and national levels. ICID and its members were urged to establish linkages at the global, regional and national levels to ensure that climate information and services reach their audiences for the betterment of humanity. It was stressed that the various ICID and WMO communities can make a difference by working together. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Key J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Goodison B.,World Meteorological Organization WMO | Schoner W.,University of Graz | Godoy O.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | And 2 more authors.
Arctic | Year: 2015

There is now an unprecedented demand for authoritative information on the past, present, and future states of the world’s snow and ice resources. The cryosphere is one of the most useful indicators of climate change, yet is one of the most under-sampled domains in the climate system. The Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress (Geneva, 2011) decided to embark on the development of a Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW) as an International Polar Year (IPY) legacy. Through WMO and its partners, GCW is now being implemented for sustained cryosphere observing and monitoring and provision of cryosphere data and information. GCW will ensure a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable system of observations and information that will allow for a full understanding of the cryosphere and its changes. It will initiate a surface-based cryosphere observing network called “CryoNet” that will establish best practices and guidelines for cryospheric measurement, data formats, and metadata by building on existing efforts. A complementary task involves developing an inventory of candidate satellite products that are mature and generally accepted by the scientific community. GCW is establishing interoperability between data management systems, and the GCW data portal will provide the ability to exchange data and information with a distributed network of providers. © The Arctic Institute of North America Source


Dilley M.,World Meteorological Organization WMO | Grasso V.F.,World Meteorological Organization WMO
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2016

Disaster risk management, particularly management of climate-related risks, has become central to the international policy agenda. Reducing hazard-related loss and damage relies heavily on scientific inputs. Science, in turn, relies on data-in this case 1) risk-related data on hazards, exposure and vulnerability, and 2) data on associated loss and damage outcomes. The latter, data on losses and damage, are also post-2015 international policy outcome indicators at the highest level, required for countries' monitoring of progress in reducing disaster risk, adapting to climate change, and achieving sustainable development. Although the quantity and accessibility of loss and damage data are improving, a number of issues continue to constrain their potential. These include needs for more consistent cataloguing of hazards and extreme events, more systematic and accurate documentation of per-event losses and damage, more precise cross-referencing of hazard events with associated loss and damage, and improved standardization and interoperability among databases. We identify measures for improvement in this regard, both for research purposes and for post-2015 international policy implementation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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