World Meteorological Organization WMO
World Meteorological Organization WMO
Baklanov A.,World Meteorological Organization WMO |
Grimmond C.S.B.,University of Reading |
Carlson D.,World Meteorological Organization WMO |
Terblanche D.,World Meteorological Organization WMO |
And 6 more authors.
Urban Climate | Year: 2017
Accelerating growth of urban populations, especially in developing countries, has become a driving force of human development. Crowded cities are centres of creativity and economic progress, but polluted air, flooding and other climate impacts, means they also face major weather, climate and environment-related challenges. Increasingly dense, complex and interdependent urban systems leave cities vulnerable: a single extreme event can lead to a widespread breakdown of a city's infrastructure often through domino effects. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recognizes that rapid urbanization necessitates new types of services which make the best use of science and technology and considers the challenge of delivering these as one of the main priorities for the meteorological community. Such Integrated Urban Weather, Environment and Climate Services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surges, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. The aim is to build urban services that meet the special needs of cities through a combination of dense observation networks, high-resolution forecasts, multi-hazard early warning systems, and climate services for reducing emissions, that will enable the building of resilient, thriving sustainable cities that promote the Sustainable Development Goals. A number of recent international studies have been initiated to explore these issues. The paper provides a brief overview of recent WMO and collaborators research programs and activities in urban hydrometeorology, climate and air pollution; describes the novel concept of urban integrated weather, climate and environment related services; and highlights research needs for their realisation. © 2017.
Orphal J.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology |
Staehelin J.,ETH Zurich |
Tamminen J.,Finnish Meteorological Institute |
Braathen G.,World Meteorological Organization WMO |
And 46 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2016
The activity “Absorption Cross-Sections of Ozone” (ACSO) started in 2008 as a joint initiative of the International Ozone Commission (IO3C), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the IGACO (“Integrated Global Atmospheric Chemistry Observations”) O3/UV subgroup to study, evaluate, and recommend the most suitable ozone absorption cross-section laboratory data to be used in atmospheric ozone measurements. The evaluation was basically restricted to ozone absorption cross-sections in the UV range with particular focus on the Huggins band. Up until now, the data of Bass and Paur published in 1985 (BP, 1985) are still officially recommended for such measurements. During the last decade it became obvious that BP (1985) cross-section data have deficits for use in advanced space-borne ozone measurements. At the same time, it was recognized that the origin of systematic differences in ground-based measurements of ozone required further investigation, in particular whether the BP (1985) cross-section data might contribute to these differences. In ACSO, different sets of laboratory ozone absorption cross-section data (including their dependence on temperature) of the group of Reims (France) (Brion et al., 1993, 1998, 1992, 1995, abbreviated as BDM, 1995) and those of Serdyuchenko et al. (2014), and Gorshelev et al. (2014), (abbreviated as SER, 2014) were examined for use in atmospheric ozone measurements in the Huggins band. In conclusion, ACSO recommends: (a) The spectroscopic data of BP (1985) should no longer be used for retrieval of atmospheric ozone measurements.(b) For retrieval of ground-based instruments of total ozone and ozone profile measurements by the Umkehr method performed by Brewer and Dobson instruments data of SER (2014) are recommended to be used. When SER (2014) is used, the difference between total ozone measurements of Brewer and Dobson instruments are very small and the difference between Dobson measurements at AD and CD wavelength pairs are diminished.(c) For ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) measurements the use of BDM (1995) or SER (2014) is recommended.(d) For satellite retrieval the presently widely used data of BDM (1995) should be used because SER (2014) seems less suitable for retrievals that use wavelengths close to 300 nm due to a deficiency in the signal-to-noise ratio in the SER (2014) dataset.The work of ACSO also showed: • The need to continue laboratory cross-section measurements of ozone of highest quality. The importance of careful characterization of the uncertainties of the laboratory measurements.• The need to extend the scope of such studies to other wavelength ranges (particularly to cover not only the Huggins band but also the comparison with the mid-infrared region).• The need for regular cooperation of experts in spectral laboratory measurements and specialists in atmospheric (ozone) measurements. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Key J.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration |
Goodison B.,World Meteorological Organization WMO |
Schoner W.,University of Graz |
Godoy O.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Arctic | Year: 2015
There is now an unprecedented demand for authoritative information on the past, present, and future states of the world’s snow and ice resources. The cryosphere is one of the most useful indicators of climate change, yet is one of the most under-sampled domains in the climate system. The Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress (Geneva, 2011) decided to embark on the development of a Global Cryosphere Watch (GCW) as an International Polar Year (IPY) legacy. Through WMO and its partners, GCW is now being implemented for sustained cryosphere observing and monitoring and provision of cryosphere data and information. GCW will ensure a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable system of observations and information that will allow for a full understanding of the cryosphere and its changes. It will initiate a surface-based cryosphere observing network called “CryoNet” that will establish best practices and guidelines for cryospheric measurement, data formats, and metadata by building on existing efforts. A complementary task involves developing an inventory of candidate satellite products that are mature and generally accepted by the scientific community. GCW is establishing interoperability between data management systems, and the GCW data portal will provide the ability to exchange data and information with a distributed network of providers. © The Arctic Institute of North America
Baklanov A.,World Meteorological Organization WMO |
Molina L.T.,Molina Center for Energy and the Environment |
Gauss M.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016
The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Dilley M.,World Meteorological Organization WMO |
Grasso V.F.,World Meteorological Organization WMO
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2016
Disaster risk management, particularly management of climate-related risks, has become central to the international policy agenda. Reducing hazard-related loss and damage relies heavily on scientific inputs. Science, in turn, relies on data-in this case 1) risk-related data on hazards, exposure and vulnerability, and 2) data on associated loss and damage outcomes. The latter, data on losses and damage, are also post-2015 international policy outcome indicators at the highest level, required for countries' monitoring of progress in reducing disaster risk, adapting to climate change, and achieving sustainable development. Although the quantity and accessibility of loss and damage data are improving, a number of issues continue to constrain their potential. These include needs for more consistent cataloguing of hazards and extreme events, more systematic and accurate documentation of per-event losses and damage, more precise cross-referencing of hazard events with associated loss and damage, and improved standardization and interoperability among databases. We identify measures for improvement in this regard, both for research purposes and for post-2015 international policy implementation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Lengoasa J.,World Meteorological Organization WMO
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2016
Climate change adaptation is an important issue for water and food security but also to sustainable development in the future. How the weather and climate elements will change in the future under climate change conditions will determine the long-term sustainability of water supplies for food production in many areas. Therefore, it is critical to address the issue of climate variability and change on the impacts on water availability. This paper highlights the following topics: latest scientific understanding on climate change; efforts being made by World Meteorological Organization (WMO) through its network of National Hydrological and Meteorological Services in delivering science based services; establishment of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) which has been established by the WMO in collaboration with other international agencies to provide climate information and services; and need for broader collaboration and cooperation among different development sectors at global as well as regional and national levels. ICID and its members were urged to establish linkages at the global, regional and national levels to ensure that climate information and services reach their audiences for the betterment of humanity. It was stressed that the various ICID and WMO communities can make a difference by working together. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.