The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organization, was an agency of the League of Nations. Wikipedia.
Mehl G.,World Health Organization
Science | Year: 2014
As countries strive toward universal health coverage, mobile wireless technologies-mHealth tools-in support of enumeration, registration, unique identification, and maintenance of health records will facilitate improved health system performance. Electronic forms and registry systems will enable routine monitoring of the coverage of essential interventions for individuals within relevant target populations. A cascading model is presented for prioritizing and operationalizing the role of integrated mHealth strategies.
FRAILOMIC - Utility of omic-based biomarkers in characterizing older individuals at risk for frailty, its progression to disability and general consequences to health and well-being - The FRAILOMIC Initiative
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.2.1.1-2 | Award Amount: 15.25M | Year: 2013
The forecasted increase in the number of older people for this century will be accompanied by an increase of those with disabilities. Disability is usually preceded by a condition named frailty that encompasses changes associated with ageing, life styles and chronic diseases. To detect and intervene on it is of outstanding importance to prevent disability, as recovery from disability is unlikely. Recent documents stress the necessity of testing the clinical utility (in terms of risk prediction, diagnosis validity and prognostic significance) of the existing definition of frailty by using combinations of clinical criteria (current definition) and lab Biomarkers (BMs). We will measure the levels of blood and urine omic-based BMs in old people selected from eight cohorts, which include up to 75,000 participants, using standardized and innovative technology (WP1). This figure will allow us to test the research questions with a high power and validity. Combining these lab BMs with clinical BMs, we will develop predictive, diagnostic and prognostic models (WP2), with its modulation by nutrition and physical activity, in general old population and in old people showing some characteristics that confer a high risk for developing frailty (selected cardiovascular risk factors and diseases) (WP4). After that, a selected set of BMs will be validated prospectively (WP3) and assessed to find the best-fitted models (WP4). These models will guide the development of the ready-to-use kits to be implemented in the clinical settings. These kits will be at the center of dissemination and exploitation activities (WP5, WP6). A well-balanced consortium distributed over the individual tasks in the respective work packages will carry it out, with a strong participation of SMEs. In summary, FRAILOMIC is original, relevant, pertinent, feasible, overcome the usual research bottlenecks on Biomarkers, and fits perfectly with the topics addressed by the HEALTH.2012.2.1.1-2 call in human subjects
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-04-2015 | Award Amount: 6.00M | Year: 2016
The BlueHealth Consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of experts reaching across all 28 European Union countries. The proposed 4.5 year BlueHealth Project takes an international, interdisciplinary and multi-sector approach to health promotion and disease prevention by investigating the relationship between the EUs blue infrastructure and the health and well-being of its citizens. Blue infrastructure refers to the network of natural and man-made aquatic environments providing a range of multi-sectorial services (e.g. transportation, fresh water provision). There has been no systematic attempt to detail the potential impacts of our blue infrastructure on health promotion and disease prevention, nor to develop guidelines on how health should be considered when developing blue infrastructure interventions, particularly across sectors. BlueHealth will address this gap. The majority of Europeans live in cities built on inland waterways, lakes, or the coasts. BlueHealth will focus on urban blue infrastructures. The EUs blue infrastructure offers significant health and well-being related opportunities and benefits (eg urban cooling, recreation), but also challenges and stressors (eg flooding, microbial/chemical pollution). BlueHealth will investigate these trade-offs, with the aims of quantifying the impacts on population health and well-being of interventions and policy initiatives connected to blue infrastructure, and identifying success factors and obstacles of inter-sectorial collaborations. Assessments of health and environment benefits, risks and costs will improve our understanding of the role of urban blue infrastructures on across-sector health promotion and disease prevention. The Partners have collaborations across the Environment, Health, and Climate sectors, and extensive experience with inter-institutional, multi-sectorial, interdisciplinary research programmes employing innovation, stakeholder engagement, dissemination, and policy impact.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC1-HCO-06-2016 | Award Amount: 2.04M | Year: 2016
In order to strengthen the sustainability and resilience of health services and systems a unique consortium of governmental and funding organizations plus research institutes, has expressed the ambition to systematically learn from the organisation of care in other settings. Overall objective of TO-REACH is to provide groundwork for an ERA-NET that will contribute to the resilience, effectiveness, equity, accessibility and comprehensiveness of health services and systems. We will do so along two work streams: A) We will develop a research program on cross-border learning from good (or even innovative) models of care and the conditions needed to transfer them to other settings for implementation. It could refer to anywhere in the care chain depending on the priorities as identified in a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) within this project. Conceptual, methodological and empirical advancement will be achieved through 4 meta-questions that will instruct research under the ERA-NET, linking to what counts as good models of care, what are the conditions required for transferability, what are the conditions for up-scaling, and how do they contribute to the performance of health care organisations and systems. B) We will build a platform for funding organizations that allows for collaboration and coordination in the project and projected ERA-NET. This will synchronize priorities and activities, hence improving the quality and applicability of research with a focus on the topic areas as described under A. TO-REACH will pursue five specific objectives: Mapping health system challenges and priorities by synthesizing different materials and stakeholder inputs; Developing a framework and providing a knowledge synthesis on the above-mentioned meta-questions; Establishing sustainable cooperation of research funding bodies and links with other initiatives; Developing a SRA through agenda setting at European and Member State level; Disseminating the results of TO-REACH.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: DRS-04-2014 | Award Amount: 1.38M | Year: 2015
The European Union (EU) faces a growing health security threat posed by pandemics due to the convergence of risk factors driving disease emergence, amplification and dissemination of pathogens with pandemic potential. Protecting the health and security of citizens in the EU in the face of these pandemic threats requires a coherent response by all stakeholders driven by effective pandemic risk management. PANDEM will contribute to the reduction in the health, socio-economic and security consequences of future pandemics so that society will be better prepared at regional, national, EU and global level. PANDEM will assess current pandemic preparedness and response tools, systems and practice at national, EU and global level in priority areas including risk assessment and surveillance, communication and public information, governance and legal frameworks. PANDEM will then identify gaps and improvement needs leading to the development of viable innovative concepts and analysis of the feasibility of a future demonstration project to strengthen capacity-building for pandemic risk management in the EU. PANDEM specifically addresses the needs and priorities detailed in the Horizon 2020 Work Programme crisis management topic DRS-4. PANDEM will focus on the needs and requirements of users and first responders across the spectrum of pandemic risk management. PANDEM will bring together highly skilled and multi-disciplinary senior experts from the health, security, defence, microbiology, communications, information technology and emergency management fields. Given the cross-border and multi-sectoral context of the health and security challenge for building pandemic risk management capacity, a systems-based methodology will be applied and the final outcome will be developed for use in a pan-European setting.
Dye C.,World Health Organization |
Williams B.G.,South African Center for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis
Science | Year: 2010
More than 36 million patients have been successfully treated via the World Health Organization's strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control since 1995. Despite predictions of a decline in global incidence, the number of new cases continues to grow, approaching 10 million in 2010. Here we review the changing relationship between the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and its human host and examine a range of factors that could explain the persistence of TB. Although there are ways to reduce susceptibility to infection and disease, and a high-efficacy vaccine would boost TB prevention, early diagnosis and drug treatment to interrupt transmission remain the top priorities for control. Whatever the technology used, success depends critically on the social, institutional, and epidemiological context in which it is applied.
Peeling R.W.,World Health Organization
Nature reviews. Microbiology | Year: 2010
Accurate diagnostic tests have a key role in patient management and the control of most infectious diseases. Unfortunately, in many developing countries, clinical care is often critically compromised by the lack of regulatory controls on the quality of these tests. The information available on the performance of a diagnostic test can be biased or flawed because of failings in the design of the studies which assessed the performance characteristics of the test. As a result, diagnostic tests are sold and used in much of the developing world without evidence of effectiveness. Misdiagnosis leading to failure to treat a serious infection or wasting expensive treatment on people who are not infected remains a serious obstacle to health.
WHO Malaria Policy Advisory Committee and Secretariat,World Health Organization
Malaria journal | Year: 2013
The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization met in Geneva, Switzerland from 13 to 15 March, 2013. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting.Meeting sessions included: a review of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Guyana and Suriname; the outcomes from a consultation on non-malaria febrile illness; the outcomes from the second meeting of the Evidence Review Group on malaria burden estimation; an update on the review of the WHO Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria; an update regarding progress on the constitution of the vector control Technical Expert Group; updates on the RTS, S/AS01 vaccine and the malaria vaccine technology roadmap; financing and resource allocation for malaria control; malaria surveillance and the need for a surveillance, monitoring and evaluation Technical Expert Group; criteria and classification related to malaria elimination; the next meeting of the Evidence Review Group on Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy; an update on the soon-to-be launched Elimination Scenario Planning Tool; and an update on the process for the Global Technical Strategy for Malaria Control and Elimination (2016-2025).Policy statements, position statements, and guidelines that arise from the MPAC meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to World Health Organization Member States by the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme.
Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: Concepts and implications for policy [Financement des soins de santé pour une couverture santé universelle et résultats du système de santé: Concepts et implications politiques]
Kutzin J.,World Health Organization
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013
Unless the concept is clearly understood, "universal coverage" (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization's World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level.
Tommasino M.,World Health Organization
Seminars in Cancer Biology | Year: 2014
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a family of small double-stranded DNA viruses that have a tropism for the epithelia of the genital and upper respiratory tracts and for the skin. Approximately 150 HPV types have been discovered so far, which are classified into several genera based on their DNA sequence. Approximately 15 high-risk mucosal HPV types are clearly associated with cervical cancer; HPV16 and HPV18 are the most carcinogenic since they are responsible for approximately 50% and 20% of all cervical cancers worldwide, respectively. It is now also clear that these viruses are linked to a subset of other genital cancers, as well as head and neck cancers.Due to their high level of carcinogenic activity, HPV16 and HPV18 are the most studied HPV types so far. Biological studies have highlighted the key roles in cellular transformation of the products of two viral early genes, E6 and E7. Many of the mechanisms of E6 and E7 in subverting the regulation of fundamental cellular events have been fully characterized, contributing not only to our knowledge of how the oncogenic viruses promote cancer development but also to our understanding of basic cell biology.Despite HPV research resulting in extraordinary achievements in the last four decades, significantly improving the screening and prophylaxis of HPV-induced lesions, additional research is necessary to characterize the biology and epidemiology of the vast number of HPV types that have been poorly investigated so far, with a final aim of clarifying their potential roles in other human diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.