Forest Grove, OR, United States
Forest Grove, OR, United States

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Wang G.,University of British Columbia | Innes J.L.,University of British Columbia | Wu S.W.,World Forest Institute | Krzyzanowski J.,University of British Columbia | And 4 more authors.
Ambio | Year: 2012

The rapid development of parks and ecotourism in China has attracted worldwide attention, not only for the beauty of the landscape that the parks are protecting but also for their abundant and often unique biodiversity. However, in some areas, the development of ecotourism has actually led to the degradation of local ecological, economic, and social systems. Using National Forest Parks for demonstration, this article analyzes the current political, institutional, legal, environmental, and economic issues concerning National Parks in China, and examines their potential future development. Although the intention of National Park systems in China is to raise environmental quality, and to protect biodiversity and social livelihoods, their success has varied. Future success will be measured by their capacity to reduce poverty, to promote long-term rehabilitation of wildlife habitats, and to simultaneously protect Chinese culture and biodiversity. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2011.

Bennett C.,University of Idaho | Bennett C.,World Forest Institute | Aime M.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Aime M.C.,Louisiana State University | Newcombe G.,University of Idaho
Mycologia | Year: 2011

In North America Melampsora rusts that parasitize willows (Salix species) have never been adequately studied and mostly have been referred to a collective species, Melampsora epitea (Kunze & Schm.) Thüm, of European origin. Even taxa that are nominally distinct from M. epitea, such as M. abieticaprearum and M. paradoxa, currently are considered to be "races" of M. epitea. Within the range of our field surveys and collections in the Pacific Northwest and the Southwest only two species of Melampsora thus were expected: M. epitea (including its races) and M. ribesii-purpureae. In this study of Melampsora on 19 species of Salix in the western United States 14 phylogenetic species, or phylotypes, were apparent from nuclear rDNA sequencing of 140 collections or isolates. Our collections of the races of M. epitea, M. abieti-caprearum and M. epitea f. sp. tsugae belonged to one phylotype, termed lineage 'N'. Assuming that M. ribesii-purpureae represents one other phylotype, 12 phylotypes still are unaccounted for by current taxonomy. Moreover Eurasian M. ribesii-purpureae was not closely related to any of the phylotypes reported here. Even more problematic was the resistance of Eurasian species of Salix, including the type host of M. epitea, S. alba, to North American Melampsora, including phylotype 'N', in both the field and in inoculation experiments. These results suggest the need for the description of many new species of Melampsora on Salix in western North America. Additional analyses presented here might guide further research in this direction. © 2011 by The Mycological Society of America.

Lin Y.-J.,Taiwan Forestry Research Institute | Wang C.-H.,Taiwan Forestry Research Institute | Wu S.,World Forest Institute
Taiwan Journal of Forest Science | Year: 2011

According to guidelines of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the carbon conversion factor (CCF) is a key parameter for estimating the amount of carbon sequestered in a forest stand. The guidelines suggest that CCF can be calculated by converting the total biomass or bulk density (BD) of plants, and multiplying by the estimated percent carbon content (PCC). There are many relevant studies on the CCF of trees, but little research has been done on the CCF of bamboo. This study focused on the analysis of different CCFs among 4 major bamboo species found in Taiwan: Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla: Ph), Makino bamboo (P. makinoi: Pm), ma bamboo (Dendrocalamus latiflorus: Dl), and thorny bamboo (Bambusa stenostachya: Bs). Various sites, ages, and positions in the culm were examined, and the resulting BD and PCC were simultaneously analyzed. The results show that the CCF significantly varied among species, sites, and positions in the culm, but showed no significant differences between age for Ph and Bs, and only partly significant differences for Pm and Dl. Variations in the CCF with the position in culm in all 4 bamboo species had the same trend: upper section > middle section > lower section. Average CCFs for a single culm of Pm, Ph, Bs, and Dl were 0.357, 0.318, 0.281, and 0.234, respectively. The results will be useful in increasing the estimation accuracy of carbon sequestration of local bamboo stands in Taiwan.

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