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Trenberth K.E.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Asrar G.R.,World Climate Research Programme
Surveys in Geophysics | Year: 2014

The state of knowledge and outstanding challenges and opportunities in global water cycle observations, research and modeling are briefly reviewed to set the stage for the reasons behind the new thrusts promoted by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) as Grand Challenges to be addressed on a 5- to 10-year time frame. Those focused on water are led by the GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Exchanges) project. A number of GEWEX science questions are being brought forward within GEWEX and the WCRP under guidance of the Joint Scientific Committee. Here, we describe what are some imperatives and opportunities for major advancements in observations, understanding, modeling and product development for water resources and climate that will enable a wide range of climate services and inform decisions on water resources management and practices. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


The carcass of a cow lies in a field in Disaneng village outside Mafikeng, South Africa, January 28, 2016. REUTERS/Sydney Seshibedi More OSLO (Reuters) - A record surge in temperatures in 2016, linked to global warming and an El Nino weather event in the Pacific, is adding urgency to a deal by 195 governments in December to curb greenhouse gas emissions to slow climate change, scientists said on Monday. Average global temperatures last month were 1.35 degree Celsius (2.4 Fahrenheit) above normal for February, the biggest temperature excess recorded for any month against a baseline of 1951-80, according to NASA data released at the weekend. The previous record was set in January, stoked by factors including a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the strong El Nino event, which releases heat from the Pacific. "I think even the hard-core climate people are looking at this and saying: 'What on Earth'?" David Carlson, director of the World Climate Research Programme at the U.N.'s World Meteorological Organization, said of the leap in temperatures. "It's startling," he told Reuters. "It's definitely a changed planet ... It makes us nervous about the long-term impact." Scientists say global warming is causing more powerful downpours, droughts and rising sea levels. Jean-Noel Thepaut, head of the Copernicus Climate Change Service at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, said the long-term trend of warming "makes the implementation of the Paris agreement urgent." He noted that 15 of the 16 warmest years since records began were in the 21st century. In December 2015, 195 nations agreed in Paris to a climate deal with a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions to a net zero by 2100, shifting from fossil fuels in favor of greener energies such as solar and wind power. They set a goal of limiting global warming to "well below" 2C (3.6F) above pre-industrial times, while "pursuing efforts" for a 1.5C (2.7F) limit. Phil Jones, of the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, said El Nino seemed less to blame for the current surge than the last big El Nino in 1998. "Based on 1998, March and probably April will also be very warm, before the El Nino influence wanes," he told Reuters. Ice in the Arctic Ocean was at the lowest recorded for February, the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center said. At Longyearbyen, on a Norwegian Arctic island, temperatures hit a peak of 6.6C (44F) on Jan. 2, against an icy average for a normal January of -15.3C (4.5F), data from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute showed. Reidun Skaland, a climate expert at the Institute, said there were always big swings in Arctic weather, "but it is a warning message when you see such high temperatures. There's an increasing trend."


News Article | March 15, 2016
Site: http://www.techtimes.com/rss/sections/environment.xml

February 2016 was the hottest February by far ever recorded in the history of the Earth. Climatologists blame global warming and an El Niño weather event in the Pacific for the increase in temperature in February this year. According to data released by NASA, the average global temperature in February was 1.35 degrees Celsius, or 2.4 degrees Fahrenheit, above normal for February. This margin is the biggest recorded for any month against a baseline of 1951 to 1980. "I think even the hard-core climate people are looking at this and saying: 'What on Earth?'" says David Carlson, the director of the World Climate Research Programme at the UN's World Meteorological Organization. "It's startling. It's definitely a changed planet ... It makes us nervous about the long-term impact." Many scientists have expressed their astonishment over the data released by NASA. "This result is a true shocker, and yet another reminder of the incessant long-term rise in global temperature resulting from human-produced greenhouse gases," say Jeff Masters and Bob Henson, meteorologists at Weather Underground. Professor Gavin Schmidt, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, also posted on Twitter regarding the temperature measurements for February 2016. The year 2014 was the hottest year for Earth and the record was shattered by 2015, which is now the hottest year recorded by scientists. Experts also believe that 2016 could break 2015's record and become the hottest year for the planet. In December 2015, 195 countries around the world agreed upon a climate deal in Paris to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to a net zero by 2100. These nations have agreed to shift from fossil fuels to greener energies like wind and solar power. The climate deal in Paris also agreed to keep global temperature increase to less than 2 degrees Celsius per year. Bob Ward, policy director at the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change at the London School of Economics, says that the data released by NASA is very worrying for the entire planet. The data suggests that soon the planet may breach the 2 degrees Celsius target. Ward says that government organizations should take the NASA data very seriously and roll up their sleeves for cutting greenhouse emission at a faster pace. The UK Met office also confirmed that Arctic ice has hit record low, which also contributes to the increase in temperature. The previous record was January 2016 with the average temperature being 1.14 degrees Celsius above the normal January average.


News Article
Site: http://news.yahoo.com/science/

Smoke billows from chimneys at a chemical factory in Tianjin Municipality December 23, 2008. REUTERS/Stringer/Files More OSLO (Reuters) - A record surge in temperatures in 2016, linked to global warming and an El Nino weather event in the Pacific, is adding urgency to a deal by 195 governments in December to curb greenhouse gas emissions to slow climate change, scientists said on Monday. Average global temperatures last month were 1.35 degree Celsius (2.4 Fahrenheit) above normal for February, the biggest temperature excess recorded for any month against a baseline of 1951-80, according to NASA data released at the weekend. The previous record was set in January, stoked by factors including a build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the strong El Nino event, which releases heat from the Pacific. "I think even the hard-core climate people are looking at this and saying: 'What on Earth'?" David Carlson, director of the World Climate Research Programme at the U.N.'s World Meteorological Organization, said of the leap in temperatures. "It's startling," he told Reuters. "It's definitely a changed planet ... It makes us nervous about the long-term impact." Scientists say global warming is causing more powerful downpours, droughts and rising sea levels. Jean-Noel Thepaut, head of the Copernicus Climate Change Service at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, said the long-term trend of warming "makes the implementation of the Paris agreement urgent." He noted that 15 of the 16 warmest years since records began were in the 21st century. In December 2015, 195 nations agreed in Paris to a climate deal with a goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions to a net zero by 2100, shifting from fossil fuels in favour of greener energies such as solar and wind power. They set a goal of limiting global warming to "well below" 2C (3.6F) above pre-industrial times, while "pursuing efforts" for a 1.5C (2.7F) limit. Phil Jones, of the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, said El Nino seemed less to blame for the current surge than the last big El Nino in 1998. "Based on 1998, March and probably April will also be very warm, before the El Nino influence wanes," he told Reuters. Ice in the Arctic Ocean was at the lowest recorded for February, the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center said. At Longyearbyen, on a Norwegian Arctic island, temperatures hit a peak of 6.6C (44F) on Jan. 2, against an icy average for a normal January of -15.3C (4.5F), data from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute showed. Reidun Skaland, a climate expert at the Institute, said there were always big swings in Arctic weather, "but it is a warning message when you see such high temperatures. There's an increasing trend."


Shapiro M.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Shapiro M.,University of Bergen | Shukla J.,George Mason University | Shukla J.,Institute of Global Environment and Society | And 41 more authors.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2010

Some scientists have proposed the Earth-System Prediction Initiative (EPI) at the 2007 GEO Summit in Cape Town, South Africa. EPI will draw upon coordination between international programs for Earth system observations, prediction, and warning, such as the WCRP, WWRP, GCOS, and hence contribute to GEO and the GEOSS. It will link with international organizations, such as the International Council for Science (ICSU), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), UNEP, WMO, and World Health Organization (WHO). The proposed initiative will provide high-resolution climate models that capture the properties of regional high-impact weather events, such as tropical cyclones, heat wave, and sand and dust storms associated within multi-decadal climate projections of climate variability and change. Unprecedented international collaboration and goodwill are necessary for the success of EPI. Source

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