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Loh Y.H.,University of Cambridge | Jakszyn P.,Catalan Institute of Oncology Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute IDIBELL | Luben R.N.,University of Cambridge | Mulligan A.A.,University of Cambridge | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Humans are exposed to preformed N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and endogenous NOCs. Several NOCs are potential human carcinogens, including N-nifrosodimefhylamine (NDMA), but evidence from population studies is inconsistent. Objective: We examined the relation between dietary NOCs (NDMA), the endogenous NOC index, and dietary nitrite and cancer incidence in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk, United Kingdom, study. Design: This was a prospective study of 23,363 men and women, aged 40-79 y, who were recruited in 1993-1997 and followed up to 2008. The baseline diet was assessed with food-frequency questionnaires. Results: There were 3268 incident cancers after a mean follow-up of 11.4 y. Dietary NDMA intake was significantly associated with increased cancer risk in men and women [hazard ratio (HR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.27; P for trend = 0.03] and in men (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.44; P for trend = 0.005) when the highest quartile was compared with the lowest quartile in age- and sex-adjusted analyses but not in multivariate analyses (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.24; HR for men: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.40; P for trend > 0.05). When continuously analyzed, NDMA was associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.28), specifically of rectal cancer (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.84) per 1-SD increase after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, cigarette smoking status, alcohol intake, energy intake, physical activity, education, and menopausal status (in women). The endogenous NOC index and dietary nitrite were not significantly associated with cancer risk. There was a significant interaction between plasma vitamin C concentrations and dietary NDMA intake on cancer incidence (P for interaction < 0.00001). Conclusions: Dietary NOC (NDMA) was associated with a higher gastrointestinal cancer incidence, specifically of rectal cancer. Plasma vitamin C may modify the relation between NDMA exposure and cancer risk. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.

Loh Y.H.,University of Cambridge | Mitrou P.N.,University of Cambridge | Mitrou P.N.,World Cancer Research Fund International | Bowman R.,University of Cambridge | And 6 more authors.
DNA Repair | Year: 2010

O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs DNA damage caused by alkylating agents including N-nitroso compounds from diet. MGMT Ile143Val polymorphism may lead to less DNA damage repair and increased cancer risk depending on the environmental exposures. We investigated interactions between dietary factors and the MGMT Ile143Val polymorphism in relation to breast, colorectal and prostate cancer risk. There were 276/1498, 273/2984 and 312/1486 cases/controls for the breast, colorectal and prostate cancer studies respectively; all nested within the EPIC-Norfolk study, a prospective cohort of approximately 25,000 men and women aged 40-79. Baseline 7-day food diary data were collected for dietary assessment. MGMT Ile143Val polymorphism was not overall associated with breast, colorectal and prostate cancer risk. There was a significant interaction between this polymorphism and intake of red and processed meat on colorectal cancer risk (Pinteraction = 0.04) suggesting an increased risk among carriers of the variant genotype compared to the MGMT Ile143Ile common genotype. A lower colorectal cancer risk was seen with higher intake of vitamin E and carotene among the variant genotype group but not in the common genotype group (Pinteraction = 0.009 and Pinteraction = 0.005 for vitamin E and carotene, respectively). A higher prostate cancer risk was seen with higher alcohol intake among the variant genotype (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.21-3.57, Pinteraction = 0.0009) compared to the common genotype with lower alcohol intake. In this UK population, the MGMT Ile143Val polymorphism was not overall associated with breast, colorectal and prostate cancer risk. There was evidence for this polymorphism playing a role in modulating the risk of prostate cancer in presence of alcohol. For colorectal cancer, the MGMT Ile143Val polymorphism may confer increased or decreased risk depending on the dietary exposure. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wiseman M.J.,World Cancer Research Fund International | Wiseman M.J.,University of Southampton
Proceedings of the Nutrition Society | Year: 2015

The burden of cancer worldwide is predicted to almost double by 2030 to nearly 23 million cases annually. The great majority of this increase is expected to occur in less economically developed countries, where access to expensive medical, surgical and radiotherapeutic interventions is likely to be limited to a small proportion of the population. This emphasises the need for preventive measures, as outlined in the declaration from the United Nations 2011 High Level Meeting on Non-communicable Diseases. The rise in incidence is proposed to follow from increasing numbers of people reaching middle and older ages, together with increasing urbanisation of the population with a nutritional transition from traditional diets to a more globalised 'Western' pattern, with a decrease in physical activity. This is also expected to effect a change in the pattern of cancers from a predominantly smoking and infection dominated one, to a smoking and obesity dominated one. The World Cancer Research Fund estimates that about a quarter to a third of the commonest cancers are attributable to excess body weight, physical inactivity and poor diet, making this the most common cause of cancers after smoking. These cancers are potentially preventable, but knowledge of the causes of cancer has not led to effective policies to prevent the export of a 'Western' pattern of cancers in lower income countries such as many in Africa. © The Author 2015.

Bakolis I.,Imperial College London | Hooper R.,Imperial College London | Thompson R.L.,University of Southampton | Thompson R.L.,World Cancer Research Fund International | Shaheen S.O.,Imperial College London
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Background: Epidemiological studies of diet and asthma have focused on relations with intakes of individual nutrients and foods and evidence has been conflicting. Few studies have examined associations with dietary patterns. Methods: We carried out a population-based case-control study of asthma in adults aged between 16 and 50 in South London, UK. Information about usual diet was obtained by food frequency questionnaire and we used principal components analysis to define five dietary patterns in controls. We used logistic and linear regression, controlling for confounders, to relate these patterns to asthma, asthma severity, rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in 599 cases and 854 controls. Results: Overall, there was weak evidence that a 'vegetarian' dietary pattern was positively associated with asthma [adjusted odds ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile of pattern score 1.43 (95% CI: 0.93-2.20), P trend 0.075], and a 'traditional' pattern (meat and vegetables) was negatively associated [OR 0.68 (0.45-1.03), P trend 0.071]. These associations were stronger amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.030 and 0.001, respectively), and the association with the 'vegetarian' pattern was stronger amongst whites (P trend 0.008). No associations were observed with asthma severity. A 'prudent' dietary pattern (wholemeal bread, fish and vegetables) was positively associated with chronic bronchitis [OR 2.61 (1.13-6.05), P trend 0.025], especially amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.002). Conclusions: Overall there were no clear relations between dietary patterns and adult asthma; associations in nonsupplement users and whites require confirmation. The finding for chronic bronchitis was unexpected and also requires replication. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Thompson R.,World Cancer Research Fund International
The journal of family health care | Year: 2010

The recommendations of a major report on dietary aspects of cancer prevention are summarised and discussed. The findings of The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Second Expert Report Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective were published in 2007 and remain valid. The Report reviewed the relationship between food, nutrition, physical activity, body fatness and 17 cancer sites. The goal of the Report was to review all the relevant research, using precise and reproducible methodologies. An expert panel reviewed the evidence. Based upon evidence that was graded "convincing" or "probable", a series of 10 recommendations to reduce the risk of developing cancer was produced. One of the most important factors is maintaining a healthy weight throughout life, which can be achieved by regular physical activity and limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks. Other important dietary measures include consuming a diet high in plant-based foods, limiting intakes of red meat, and avoiding salty foods and processed meat. Alcohol should be consumed in modest amounts, if at all. Dietary supplements are not recommended for cancer prevention.

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