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Montréal, Canada

Barroso O.,World Anti doping Agency WADA | Goudreault D.,INRS Institute Armand Frappier | Carbo Banus M.,Prous Institute for Biomedical Research | Carbo Banus M.,University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Drug Testing and Analysis | Year: 2012

Due to its stimulatory effects on the central nervous system, and its structural similarity to banned stimulants such as ephedrine and methamphetamine, pseudoephedrine (PSE) at high doses is considered as an ergogenic aid for boosting athletic performance. However, the status of PSE in the International Standard of the Prohibited List as established under the World Anti-Doping Code has changed over the years, being prohibited until 2003 at a urinary cut-off value of 25 μg/ml, and then subsequently removed from the Prohibited List during the period 2004-2009. The re-consideration of this position by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) List Expert Group has led to the reintroduction of PSE in the Prohibited List in 2010. In this manuscript, we present the results of two WADA-sponsored clinical studies on the urinary excretion of PSE and its metabolite cathine (CATH) following the oral administration of different PSE formulations to healthy individuals at therapeutic regimes. On this basis, the current analytical urinary threshold for the detection of PSE as a doping agent in sport has been conservatively established at 150 μg/ml Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Results of two WADA-sponsored clinical excretion studies on the basis of which pseudoephedrine was re-introduced into the WADA Prohibited List 2010 as a substance banned in-competition (at a urinary threshold of 150 μg/mL. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Dvorak J.,FIFA F MARC FIFA Strasse | Baume N.,Lausanne Anti Doping Laboratory | Botre F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Broseus J.,University of Lausanne | And 23 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

A medical and scientific multidisciplinary consensus meeting was held from 29 to 30 November 2013 on Anti-Doping in Sport at the Home of FIFA in Zurich, Switzerland, to create a roadmap for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. The consensus statement and accompanying papers set out the priorities for the antidoping community in research, science and medicine. The participants achieved consensus on a strategy for the implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code. Key components of this strategy include: (1) sport-specific risk assessment, (2) prevalence measurement, (3) sport-specific test distribution plans, (4) storage and reanalysis, (5) analytical challenges, (6) forensic intelligence, (7) psychological approach to optimise the most deterrent effect, (8) the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and confounding factors, (9) data management system (Anti-Doping Administration & Management System (ADAMS), (10) education, (11) research needs and necessary advances, (12) inadvertent doping and (13) management and ethics: biological data. True implementation of the 2015 World Anti-Doping Code will depend largely on the ability to align thinking around these core concepts and strategies. FIFA, jointly with all other engaged International Federations of sports (Ifs), the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), are ideally placed to lead transformational change with the unwavering support of the wider antidoping community. The outcome of the consensus meeting was the creation of the ad hoc Working Group charged with the responsibility of moving this agenda forward. Source


Pitsiladis Y.P.,University of Brighton | Durussel J.,Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical science | Rabin O.,World Anti doping Agency WADA
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHumanEPO) improves sporting performance and henceis frequently subject to abuse by athletes, although rHumanEPO is prohibited by the WADA. Approaches to detect rHumanEPO doping have improved significantly in recent years but remain imperfect. A new transcriptomicbased longitudinal screening approach is being developed that has the potential to improve the analytical performance of current detection methods. In particular, studies are being funded by WADA to identify a 'molecular signature' of rHumanEPO doping and preliminary results are promising. In the first systematic study to be conducted, the expression of hundreds of genes were found to be altered by rHumanEPO with numerous gene transcripts being differentially expressed after the first injection and further transcripts profoundly upregulated during and subsequently downregulated up to 4 weeks postadministration of the drug; with the same transcriptomic pattern observed in all participants. The identification of a blood 'molecular signature' of rHumanEPO administration is the strongest evidence todate that gene biomarkers have the potential to substantially improve the analytical performance of current antidoping methods such as the Athlete Biological Passport for rHumanEPO detection. Given the early promise of transcriptomics, research using an 'omics'-based approach involving genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics should be intensified in order to achieve improved detection of rHumanEPO and other doping substances and methods difficult to detect such a recombinant human growth hormone and blood transfusions. Source

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