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Sottas P.-E.,Swiss Laboratory for Anti Doping Analyses | Robinson N.,Swiss Laboratory for Anti Doping Analyses | Rabin O.,World Anti Doping Agency | Saugy M.,Swiss Laboratory for Anti Doping Analyses
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: In elite sports, the growing availability of doping substances identical to those naturally produced by the human body seriously limits the ability of drug-testing regimes to ensure fairness and protection of health. CONTENT: The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP), the new paradigm in testing based on the personalized monitoring of biomarkers of doping, offers the enormous advantage of being independent of this endless pharmaceutical race. Doping triggers physiological changes that provide physiological enhancements. In the same way that disease-related biomarkers are invaluable tools that assist physicians in the diagnosis of pathology, specifically selected biomarkers can be used to detect doping. SUMMARY: The ABP is a new testing paradigm with immense potential value in the current climate of rapid advancement in biomarker discovery. In addition to its original aim of providing proof of a doping offense, the ABP can also serve as a platform for a Rule of Sport, with the presentation before competition of the ABP to objectively demonstrate that the athlete will participate in a healthy physiological condition that is unaltered by performance-enhancing drugs. Finally, the decision-support system used today for the biological monitoring of world top-level athletes can also be advantageously transferred to other areas of clinical practice to reach the goal of personalized medicine. © 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.


Rabin O.,World Anti Doping Agency
Forensic Science International | Year: 2011

Most substances used for doping in sport are legitimate pharmaceutical products deviated from their intended therapeutic applications. One of the major challenges for anti-doping authorities, in anticipation of future doping trends, is to assess the doping potential of drugs in development by the health industry and to timely develop anti-doping analytical methods to detect their abuse before such drugs become available to athletes intending to use them as doping agents. In this regard, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has recently consolidated several agreements with representatives from the pharmaceutical sector in order to establish a framework of collaboration and to facilitate the identification and transfer of information on drugs in development. The context of the collaborative effort between WADA and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, as well as the role of drug regulatory agencies in an integrated process in support of the fight against doping in sport are described in this article. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Botre F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Botre F.,Sportiva | Wu M.,China Anti Doping Agency | Boghosian T.,World Anti Doping Agency
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

This article outlines the process of preparation of an anti-doping laboratory in view of the activities to be performed on the occasion of the Olympic Games, focusing in particular on the accreditation requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and ISO/IEC 17025, as well as on the additional obligations required by the International Olympic Committee, which is the testing authority responsible for the anti-doping activities at the Olympics. Due to the elevated workload expected on the occasion of the Olympic Games, the designated anti-doping laboratory needs to increase its analytical capacity (samples processed/time) and capability by increasing the laboratorys resources in terms of space, instrumentation and personnel. Two representative cases, one related to the Winter Olympic Games (Torino 2006) and one related to the Summer Olympic Games (Beijing 2008), are presented in detail, in order to discuss the main aspects of compliance with both the WADA and ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation requirements. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Dikic N.,Anti Doping Agency of Serbia | Dikic N.,European Committee for the World Anti Doping Agency CAHAMA | Samardzic Markovic S.,Youth and Sport | Samardzic Markovic S.,World Anti Doping Agency | Mc Namee M.,University of Swansea
Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin | Year: 2011

This study explores a controversial aspect of the new World Anti Doping Agency Code, which requires athletes in registered testing pools to submit accurate data concerning their whereabouts for one hour every day, three months in advance, to allow effective year round testing. In particular, the policy is designed to heighten the effectiveness of out-of-competition testing and close the loophole on athletes who have sought to use remote locations to avoid doping control officers. If an athlete misses three tests or records three filing failures they are deemed to have committed a doping offence, leading to a ban of up to two years. We present data from 20 National Anti Doping Organizations and 1 International Federation (cycling) regarding similar data. They reveal substantial variations in filing failures across organizations. We argue that the fairness of the system, however, is potentially vulnerable to variable interpretations of compliance, and to inaccurate and non-transparent administration regarding filing failures and missed tests. We conclude that there is a need for greater communication between anti-doping organizations and harmonization of interpretation and compliance of the rules.


Sottas P.-E.,World Anti Doping Agency | Vernec A.,World Anti Doping Agency
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

During the last four decades, the main instrument at the disposal of anti-doping authorities has been the detection of prohibited substances in biological samples collected from athletes. However, the availability of substances identical to those produced by the human body, such as EPO, testosterone and GH, necessitated a new drug-testing paradigm. From the early 2000s, the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was proposed as an alternative means to drug testing. Doping leaves a characteristic fingerprint on the biology of the athlete and the ABP is used to prove the act of doping from the detection of that fingerprint. Once a biomarker of doping is implemented in the ABP, it will continue to remain valid and should be able to detect the physiological changes brought on by performance-enhancing drugs that have not yet been invented. However, the sensitivity of the ABP to detect doping is limited if the physiological result of a low level of doping remains within the individuals own reference range. Recent advances in proteomics and metabolomics show the huge potential of the ABP. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.

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