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Dikic N.,Anti Doping Agency of Serbia | Dikic N.,European Committee for the World Anti Doping Agency CAHAMA | Samardzic Markovic S.,Youth and Sport | Samardzic Markovic S.,World Anti Doping Agency | Mc Namee M.,University of Swansea
Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Sportmedizin | Year: 2011

This study explores a controversial aspect of the new World Anti Doping Agency Code, which requires athletes in registered testing pools to submit accurate data concerning their whereabouts for one hour every day, three months in advance, to allow effective year round testing. In particular, the policy is designed to heighten the effectiveness of out-of-competition testing and close the loophole on athletes who have sought to use remote locations to avoid doping control officers. If an athlete misses three tests or records three filing failures they are deemed to have committed a doping offence, leading to a ban of up to two years. We present data from 20 National Anti Doping Organizations and 1 International Federation (cycling) regarding similar data. They reveal substantial variations in filing failures across organizations. We argue that the fairness of the system, however, is potentially vulnerable to variable interpretations of compliance, and to inaccurate and non-transparent administration regarding filing failures and missed tests. We conclude that there is a need for greater communication between anti-doping organizations and harmonization of interpretation and compliance of the rules.


Barroso O.,World Anti Doping Agency | Handelsman D.J.,ANZAC Research Institute | Strasburger C.,Campus Mitte Charite | Thevis M.,German Sport University Cologne
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

Although significant progress has been achieved during the past few years with the introduction of new assays and analytical methodologies, the detection and quantification of protein analytes, in particular of peptide hormones, continues to pose analytical challenges for the World Anti-Doping Agency-accredited anti-doping laboratories. In this article, the latest achievements in the application of MS-based methodologies and specific biochemical and immunological assays to detect some of the prohibited substances listed in section S2 of the World Anti-Doping Agency List of Prohibited Substances and Methods are reviewed. In addition, we look towards the future by focusing on some of the most promising analytical approaches under development for the detection of so-called 'biomarkers of doping'. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Sottas P.-E.,Swiss Laboratory for Anti Doping Analyses | Robinson N.,Swiss Laboratory for Anti Doping Analyses | Rabin O.,World Anti Doping Agency | Saugy M.,Swiss Laboratory for Anti Doping Analyses
Clinical Chemistry | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: In elite sports, the growing availability of doping substances identical to those naturally produced by the human body seriously limits the ability of drug-testing regimes to ensure fairness and protection of health. CONTENT: The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP), the new paradigm in testing based on the personalized monitoring of biomarkers of doping, offers the enormous advantage of being independent of this endless pharmaceutical race. Doping triggers physiological changes that provide physiological enhancements. In the same way that disease-related biomarkers are invaluable tools that assist physicians in the diagnosis of pathology, specifically selected biomarkers can be used to detect doping. SUMMARY: The ABP is a new testing paradigm with immense potential value in the current climate of rapid advancement in biomarker discovery. In addition to its original aim of providing proof of a doping offense, the ABP can also serve as a platform for a Rule of Sport, with the presentation before competition of the ABP to objectively demonstrate that the athlete will participate in a healthy physiological condition that is unaltered by performance-enhancing drugs. Finally, the decision-support system used today for the biological monitoring of world top-level athletes can also be advantageously transferred to other areas of clinical practice to reach the goal of personalized medicine. © 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.


Rabin O.,World Anti Doping Agency
Forensic Science International | Year: 2011

Most substances used for doping in sport are legitimate pharmaceutical products deviated from their intended therapeutic applications. One of the major challenges for anti-doping authorities, in anticipation of future doping trends, is to assess the doping potential of drugs in development by the health industry and to timely develop anti-doping analytical methods to detect their abuse before such drugs become available to athletes intending to use them as doping agents. In this regard, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has recently consolidated several agreements with representatives from the pharmaceutical sector in order to establish a framework of collaboration and to facilitate the identification and transfer of information on drugs in development. The context of the collaborative effort between WADA and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, as well as the role of drug regulatory agencies in an integrated process in support of the fight against doping in sport are described in this article. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Boghosian T.,World Anti Doping Agency | Mazzoni I.,World Anti Doping Agency | Barroso O.,World Anti Doping Agency | Rabin O.,World Anti Doping Agency
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2011

The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (the List), an International Standard published yearly by theWorld Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), determines which substances and methods are prohibited in sport in- and out-of-competition. Stimulants are included within drug class S.6 under the in-competition testing section of the List. Athletes may be tempted to use stimulants as ergogenic aids in-competition in order to temporarily improve their mental and/or physical functions by increasing alertness, aggressiveness, motivation, locomotion, heart rate, and reducing fatigue. The Prohibited List Expert Group, responsible for the maintenance of the List, approvedWADA funding for a two-year study to determine whether athletes were also using stimulants to benefit from their performance-enhancing effects during the training phase between competitions (i.e., out-of-competition). This study, involving 11WADA-accredited laboratories, found that the use of stimulants by athletes during training was not significantly prevalent (0.36% of positive findings), suggesting that this issue does not, at the moment, pose a further challenge to the fight against doping in sport. In addition, the study supports the current structure in the Prohibited List that differentiates banned substances into the in- and out-of-competition classifications.


Botre F.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Botre F.,Sportiva | Wu M.,China Anti Doping Agency | Boghosian T.,World Anti Doping Agency
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

This article outlines the process of preparation of an anti-doping laboratory in view of the activities to be performed on the occasion of the Olympic Games, focusing in particular on the accreditation requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) and ISO/IEC 17025, as well as on the additional obligations required by the International Olympic Committee, which is the testing authority responsible for the anti-doping activities at the Olympics. Due to the elevated workload expected on the occasion of the Olympic Games, the designated anti-doping laboratory needs to increase its analytical capacity (samples processed/time) and capability by increasing the laboratorys resources in terms of space, instrumentation and personnel. Two representative cases, one related to the Winter Olympic Games (Torino 2006) and one related to the Summer Olympic Games (Beijing 2008), are presented in detail, in order to discuss the main aspects of compliance with both the WADA and ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation requirements. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Mazzoni I.,World Anti Doping Agency | Barroso O.,World Anti Doping Agency | Rabin O.,World Anti Doping Agency
Journal of Analytical Toxicology | Year: 2011

The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (the List) is the International Standard that determines what is prohibited in sport in- and out-of-competition. The official text of the List is produced by theWorld Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the international independent organization responsible for promoting, coordinating and monitoring the fight against doping in sport. The drafting of the annual List is a highly interactive and consultative process involving scientific and medical experts in anti-doping, sport federations and governments. In this article, the elements that compose the List as well as the process behind its annual revision and update are presented.


Huestis M.A.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse | Mazzoni I.,World Anti Doping Agency | Rabin O.,World Anti Doping Agency
Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsibility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of cannabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athletes health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.


Sottas P.-E.,World Anti Doping Agency | Vernec A.,World Anti Doping Agency
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

During the last four decades, the main instrument at the disposal of anti-doping authorities has been the detection of prohibited substances in biological samples collected from athletes. However, the availability of substances identical to those produced by the human body, such as EPO, testosterone and GH, necessitated a new drug-testing paradigm. From the early 2000s, the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) was proposed as an alternative means to drug testing. Doping leaves a characteristic fingerprint on the biology of the athlete and the ABP is used to prove the act of doping from the detection of that fingerprint. Once a biomarker of doping is implemented in the ABP, it will continue to remain valid and should be able to detect the physiological changes brought on by performance-enhancing drugs that have not yet been invented. However, the sensitivity of the ABP to detect doping is limited if the physiological result of a low level of doping remains within the individuals own reference range. Recent advances in proteomics and metabolomics show the huge potential of the ABP. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Schamasch P.,International Olympic Committee | Rabin O.,World Anti Doping Agency
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

In less than 10 years after the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code and of the International Standard for Laboratories and its related Technical Documents, the analysis of human samples for the purpose of anti-doping testing has undergone a noticeable evolution. The research programs developed by the anti-doping organizations, and in particular the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), have created an unprecedented momentum in anti-doping science to strengthen the existing analytical methods, as well as to support the development and implementation of new and more sophisticated methodologies by the WADA-accredited laboratories. The integration of technical novelties into the analytical menus has been stimulated by the never-ending challenges posed by the adoption of more complex doping regimens by some athletes and their entourage. This increased sophistication of doping practices has also been reflected in the addition of new doping substances or methods on the WADA Prohibited Substances and Methods List. The integration of new anti-doping scientific paradigms with the development of the Athlete Biological Passport or the foreseen implementation of genomic- and proteomic-based tests constantly reshapes the environment of anti-doping analysis. This article provides a multiangle perspective on some of the key analytical challenges that anti-doping analytical science will face in 2012 and beyond. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.

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