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Ma X.,Yunnan Institute of Environmental Science | Ma X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Xu J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Xu J.,World Agroforestry Center | van Noordwijk M.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia
Hydrological Processes

Global climate change will likely increase temperature and variation in precipitation in the Himalayas, modifying both supply of and demand for water. This study assesses combined impacts of land-cover and climate changes on hydrological processes and a rainfall-to-streamflow buffer indicator of watershed function using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Kejie watershed in the eastern Himalayas. The Hadley Centre Coupled Model Version 3 (HadCM3) was used for two Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios (A2 and B2), for 2010-2099. Four land-cover change scenarios increase forest, grassland, crops, or urban land use, respectively, reducing degraded land. The SWAT model predicted that downstream water resources will decrease in the short term but increase in the long term. Afforestation and expansion in cropland will probably increase actual evapotranspiration (ET) and reduce annual streamflow but will also, through increased infiltration, reduce the overland flow component of streamflow and increase groundwater release. An expansion in grassland will decrease actual ET, increase annual streamflow and groundwater release, while decreasing overland flow. Urbanization will result in increases in streamflow and overland flow and reductions in groundwater release and actual ET. Land-cover change dominated over effects on streamflow of climate change in the short and middle terms. The predicted changes in buffer indicator for land-use plus climate-change scenarios reach up to 50% of the current (and future) range of inter-annual variability. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Widayati A.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia | Carlisle B.,Northumbria University
Forest Ecology and Management

Lambusango Forest, Buton, Indonesia, is an example of the potential for conflict between forest conservation and long standing local extraction of Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs), in this case rattan cane harvesting. This paper investigates the impacts of rattan harvesting on tree and understorey vegetation structure, species richness and diversity. Tree and understorey vegetation characteristics and soil and topographic variables were recorded in forest plots. Interviews with rattan harvesters recorded information on harvesting techniques and locations. The relationships between tree and understorey vegetation characteristics and soils, topography and rattan harvesting techniques were assessed with the multivariate ordination technique of Redundancy Analysis (RDA). Analysis of the relationships with rattan harvesting proximity and forest designation zone used Multivariate Analyses of Covariance (MANCOVA). Tree species richness and diversity are primarily affected by slope gradient and altitude, while tree size is affected mainly by soil chemical factors. Only a small part of the variation in tree structure measures can be attributed to the impacts of rattan cane harvesting. Stronger adverse effects on understorey vegetation density, including tree saplings and seedlings, were found. This is thought to be a case of rattan harvesting exacerbating the effects of competition between rattan plants and other understorey vegetation. Longer term monitoring of forest characteristics could provide stronger understanding of the impacts. However, rattan harvesting appears to have little effect on forest structure and diversity in Lambusango Forest, suggesting that relatively small scale NTFP extraction does not necessarily conflict with forest conservation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Akiefnawati R.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia | Villamor G.B.,University of Bonn | Zulfikar F.,KKI WARSI | Budisetiawan I.,Dinas Kehutanan Dan Perkebunan | And 3 more authors.
International Forestry Review

Contested rules between the state and local communities over use and protection of forest affect environmental services and livelihood options in Indonesia's forest margins. Success in forest protection and emission reduction (REDD) requires conflict resolution. The recent village forest (Hutan Desa) regulation by the Minister of Forestry (P.49/Menhut-II/2008) details how to reconcile forest management targets and livelihood interests of forest-edge villages within the framework of a permanent forest estate. Lubuk Beringin in Bungo District, Jambi Province became the first village in Indonesia to secure such an agreement. Our analysis of process, stakes and social capital bridging local, district and national scales of Hutan Desa aims to assist in reducing transaction costs for wider application. Streamlining of rules is needed to make Hutan Desa a viable part of REDD schemes at relevant scale, and to support locally appropriate mitigation action as part of national strategies, and as co-investment in stewardship for local, national and global benefits. Source

Agung P.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia | Galudra G.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia | Van Noordwijk M.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia | Maryani R.,FORDA
Climate Policy

Indonesia has turned its alleged role as global leader of land-based carbon emissions into a role as a global trailblazer exploring modalities for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). REDD+ readiness is largely about improving forest governance, but this itself is a multilayered concept. This article analyses how the processes and practices of REDD+ readiness are leading to various forest governance reforms in Indonesia. We analysed six dimensions of REDD+ readiness progress over the past six years and the way these interact with land tenure reform and land-use planning. We found evidence that (1) tenure issues are taken more seriously, as evidenced by the development of social safeguard mechanisms and efforts to accelerate the gazettement of forest boundaries, although a constitutional court recognition in 2013 for customary forest management is, however, yet to be operationalized; (2) spatial planning relates forests more clearly to other parts of the landscape in terms of compliance with Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) commitments; and (3) the forest and peatland conversion moratorium initiative led to a revamping of forest management. Despite progress, there are still major obstacles to full REDD+ implementation in Indonesia. The discussion focuses on the weaker part of readiness and possible ways forward. © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis. Source

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