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Kehbila A.G.,EcoXergy Solutions Inc. | Kehbila A.G.,International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture | Alemagi D.,World Agroforestry Center Regional Office | Minang P.A.,ASB Global Coordinator and Senior Scientist
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

Cameroon is committed to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+). To achieve this goal, the government has introduced a series of policy reforms and formulated a number of key strategic planning documents to advance the REDD+ readiness process in Cameroon. This paper assesses the extent to which major cross-sectoral policies support or impede the development and implementation of an optimal REDD+ strategy in Cameroon from a comparative multi-criteria perspective. Study results reveal that a majority of the policy instruments reviewed appeared to be less prescriptive in terms of any tangible REDD+ strategy, as they do not have provisions for tangible measures to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Given the lack of adequate flexibility, prompt review and responsiveness of these cross-sectoral policies to adapt themselves to new realities and respond to a changing environment, this paper introduces a GIS-REDD+ decision support system (GIS-REDD+DSS) that is necessary to support the adaptive element of an adaptive REDD+ strategy in Cameroon. The GIS-REDD+DSS, an electronic REDD+agri intermediary hub, serves the following purpose: (1) host a database of locally-relevant climate information, improved input technologies, best practices as well as land use and forest cover geo-spatial maps, (2) host a virtual economic tool that performs economic valuations (costs and benefits) and financial analysis of REDD+agri projects to aid investment decision-making, and (3) host an electronic marketplace to mediate any-to-any transactions among REDD+agri project developers, service providers, input suppliers, private and institutional investors and buyers (wholesalers and retailers), thereby creating value in two ways: aggregation and matching. This decision support tool, we argue, is a fundamental prerequisite for "policy and REDD+ safeguard integration" innovation that allows new scientific findings to be integrated into REDD+ strategies in a short period of time. © 2014 by the authors.

Ackom E.K.,Technical University of Denmark | Alemagi D.,World Agroforestry Center Regional Office | Ackom N.B.,University of Ghana | Minang P.A.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Tchoundjeu Z.,World Agroforestry Center Regional Office
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Environmentally benign modern bioenergy is widely acknowledged as a potential substitute for fossil fuels to offset the human dependence on fossil fuels for energy. We have profiled Cameroon, a country where modern bioenergy remains largely untapped due to a lack of availability of biomass data and gaps in existing policies. This study assessed the biomass resource potential in Cameroon from sustainably extracted agricultural and forest residues. We estimated that environmentally benign residues amount to 1.11 million bone dry tons per year. This has the potential to yield 0.12-0.32 billion liters of ethanol annually to displace 18-48% of the national consumption of gasoline. Alternatively, the residues could provide 0.08-0.22 billion liters of biomass to Fischer Tropsch diesel annually to offset 17-45% of diesel fuel use. For the generation of bioelectricity, the residues could supply 0.76-2.02. TW. h, which is the equivalent of 15-38% of Cameroon's current electricity consumption. This could help spread electricity throughout the country, especially in farming communities where the residues are plentiful. The residues could, however, offset only 3% of the national consumption of traditional biomass (woodfuel and charcoal). Policy recommendations that promote the wider uptake of modern bioenergy applications from residues are provided. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Alemagi D.,World Agroforestry Center Regional Office | Minang P.A.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Feudjio M.,World Agroforestry Center Regional Office | Duguma L.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry
Climate Policy | Year: 2014

Cameroon has been a keen participant in Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+) negotiations since 2005 and has engaged in activities to enhance the implementation of REDD+. This article reviews progress on REDD+ readiness in Cameroon based on a multiple REDD+ functions framework. Results show that some progress has been made in terms of planning and coordination, institutional development, and the development of some REDD+ projects. Absence of a legal framework, inadequate procedures for stakeholder participation, slow progress in the development of a national strategy, monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) challenges, and weak financing remain prominent constraints. Despite having one of the slowest REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) processes in the Congo Basin, stakeholders feel strong ownership because the R-PP was done almost entirely by Cameroonian experts. Some opportunities for improving REDD+ can be considered going forward, including the establishment of procedures for a broader participatory process, speeding up the operationalization of the National Observatory on Climate Change, making use of the ongoing forestry law reform, consideration of a carbon concessions concept, tapping from international initiatives to build on MRV, and improving benefit sharing and financing through the development of an appropriate and decentralized mechanism. Enhancing these opportunities is fundamental for successful REDD+ implementation in Cameroon.Policy relevance.This article offers a new multidimensional approach to assessing the REDD+ readiness process in Cameroon. This critical assessment, which is done using six key functions, provides an opportunity for enhanced understanding of the process by policy makers, decision makers, and professionals with a view to enabling improvements in the readiness process. Furthermore, the article proffers a series of opportunities that the government and other relevant stakeholders can capitalize on to overcome current hurdles affecting the REDD+ readiness process. It is hoped that policy makers driving the REDD+ process in Cameroon will be able to incorporate the findings of this research into their strategic policy, formulated to advance the REDD+ readiness process. More importantly, it is hoped that the multidimensional framework applied in this study could be useful for assessing REDD+ in similar contexts in the Congo Basin. © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

Alemagi D.,World Agroforestry Center Regional Office | Duguma L.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Minang P.A.,International Center for Research in Agroforestry | Nkeumoe F.,World Agroforestry Center Regional Office | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability | Year: 2015

Tree planting and the use of inputs within cocoa agroforestry systems are key intensification pathways for enhancing the contribution of these systems to REDD+. However, scholarship on the hurdles, motivations, and challenges pertaining to intensification of these systems remains surprisingly scanty. A questionnaire addressing these knowledge gaps was administered to 461 cocoa farmers randomly selected from 10 communities in the South Region of Cameroon. The lack of technical support was identified as one of the main obstacles to tree planting and the use of inputs. The least motivating factor behind tree planting and the use of inputs was inadequate technical assistance. Limited access to credit facilities was observed as of the most important challenges to tree planting and the use of inputs. Addressing the various hurdles and challenges and promoting the least motivation factor through proper incentive mechanisms could advance REDD+ since intensification pathways within these systems increase agricultural productivity thereby enabling farmers to stay on the same land. This results in less forest being cleared and allows for the recovery of forests degaraded for the creation of these systems. In closing, we proffer incentive mechansims for promoting intensification pathways within these cocoa agroforestry systems. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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