Working Group on Zoonoses


Working Group on Zoonoses

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Cascio A.,Messina University | Cascio A.,Working Group on Zoonoses | Bosilkovski M.,Working Group on Zoonoses | Bosilkovski M.,University of Macedonia | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2011

The resurgence of infectious diseases of zoonotic origin observed in recent years imposes a major morbidity/mortality burden worldwide, and also a major economic burden that extends beyond pure medical costs. The resurgence and epidemiology of zoonoses are complex and dynamic, being influenced by varying parameters that can roughly be categorized as human-related, pathogen-related, and climate/environment-related; however, there is significant interplay between these factors. Human-related factors include modern life trends such as ecotourism, increased exposure through hunting or pet owning, and culinary habits, industrialization sequelae such as farming/food chain intensification, globalization of trade, human intrusion into ecosystems and urbanization, significant alterations in political regimes, conflict with accompanying breakdown of public health and surveillance infrastructure, voluntary or involuntary immigration, loosening of border controls, and hierarchy issues in related decision-making, and scientific advances that allow easier detection of zoonotic infections and evolution of novel susceptible immunocompromised populations. Pathogen-related factors include alterations in ecosystems and biodiversity that influence local fauna synthesis, favouring expansion of disease hosts or vectors, pressure for virulence/resistance selection, and genomic variability. Climate/environment-related factors, either localized or extended, such as El Niño southern oscillation or global warming, may affect host-vector life cycles through varying mechanisms. Emerging issues needing clarification include the development of predictive models for the infectious disease impact of environmental projects, awareness of the risk imposed on immunocompromised populations, recognition of the chronicity burden for certain zoonoses, and the development of different evaluations of the overall stress imposed by a zoonotic infection on a household, and not strictly a person. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Cascio A.,Policlinico G. Martino | Cascio A.,Working Group on Zoonoses | Pernice L.M.,Policlinico G. Martino | Barberi G.,Policlinico G. Martino | And 8 more authors.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare syndrome that is often fatal despite treatment. It is caused by a dysregulation in natural killer T-cell function, resulting in activation and proliferation of histiocytes with uncontrolled hemophagocytosis and cytokines overproduction. The syndrome is characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, liver dysfunction, and hyperferritinemia. HLH can be either primary, with a genetic aetiology, or secondary, associated with malignancies, autoimmune diseases, or infections. AIM: To focus on secondary HLH complicating zoonotic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed search of human cases of HLH occurring during zoonotic diseases was performed combining the terms (haemophagocytic OR haemophagocytosis OR hemophagocytosis OR hemophagocytic OR erythrophagocytosis OR macrophage activation syndrome) with each one of the etiological agents of zoonoses. RESULTS: Among bacterial diseases, most papers reported cases occurring during brucellosis, rickettsial diseases and Q fever. Regarding viral diseases, most of the cases were reported in patients with avian influenza A subtype H5N1. Among the protozoan zoonoses, most of the cases were reported in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Regarding zoonotic fungi, most of the cases were reported in AIDS patient with histoplasmosis. No cases of secondary HLH were reported in patient with zoonotic helminthes. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic diseases are an important cause of HLH. Secondary HLH can delay the correct diagnosis of the zoonotic disease, and can contribute to an adverse outcome.

Escobedo A.A.,Academic Paediatric Hospital Pedro Borras | Escobedo A.A.,Working Group on Zoonoses | Lalle M.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Hrastnik N.I.,University of Nova Gorica | And 7 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2016

Treatment failures in patients suffering from giardiasis are not uncommon feature. The most frequent approach in these cases is to treat these patients with longer repeated courses and/or higher doses of the primary therapy, or using drugs from a different class to avoid potential cross-resistance. However, a higher rate of adverse events may limit this strategy. In this context, combination therapy (CT) is emerging as a valuable option against refractory giardiasis. In the attempt to evaluate the benefits of CT, a number of experimental studies, clinical series, and randomized clinical trials (RCTs), as well as several veterinary studies have been performed, with varying results. Here, we present a critical analysis of the available information regarding CT for the treatment of Giardia infection, as well as the authors’ opinion with respect to its use. RCTs of combination therapy are limited and the optimal combinations and administration strategies need yet to be clarified. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness and RCTs of CTs for Giardia infection are required to assess the role of these drugs for the control of giardiasis, mainly in the case of treatment failures linked to suspected drug tolerance are the case. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Galletti B.,Messina University | Mannella V.K.,Messina University | Santoro R.,Messina University | Rodriguez-Morales A.J.,Technological University of Pereira | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2014

Introduction: Zoonoses are infections transmitted from animal to man, either directly (through direct contact or contact with animal products) or indirectly (through an intermediate vector, such as an arthropod). The causative agents include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi. The purpose of this review is to make an accurate examination of all zoonotic diseases that can be responsible of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) involvement. Methodology: A PubMed search was performed combining the terms (otorhinolaryngology OR rhinology OR laryngology OR otology OR mastoiditis OR otitis OR sinusitis OR laryngitis OR rhinitis OR pharyngitis OR epiglottitis OR dysphonia OR ear OR larynx OR nose OR pharynx) with each one of the etiological agents of zoonoses for the period between January 1997 and August 2012 without language restrictions. Results: A total of 164 articles were selected and examined. Larynx was the most commonly involved ENT organ, followed by oral cavity, pharynx, and neck. Bacteria were the most representative microorganisms involved. Nose and major salivary glands were affected most frequently by protozoa; paranasal sinus, oral cavity, ear, neck, nerves and upper airway by bacteria; and larynx by fungi. Conclusions: ENT symptoms and signs may be present in many zoonotic diseases, some of which are also present in industrialized countries. Most zoonotic diseases are not commonly encountered by ENT specialists. Appreciation of the possible occurrence of these diseases is important for a correct microbiological approach, which often requires special culture media and diagnostic techniques. © 2014 Galletti et al.

Escobedo A.A.,Academic Paediatric Hospital Pedro Borras | Escobedo A.A.,Working Group on Zoonoses | Arencibia R.,National Scientific Research Center | Vega R.L.,Placental Histotherapy Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2015

Conclusions: In this first effort to explore the development and research productivity on giardiasis over time (no previously published bibliometric studies on giardiasis exist), two interesting characteristics of the Giardia and giardiasis literature were discovered: the concentration of papers over journals disseminating the research results, and that research in this field is growing and will likely continue to grow in the coming years.AbstractIntroduction: Despite years of relative neglect, interest in Giardia infection seems to be recently growing, perhaps in part due to its inclusion into the World Health Organization’s Neglected Diseases Initiative since 2004. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of Giardia and giardiasis research over time, as represented by the quantity of published papers.Methodology: Data for this study were collected from the electronic PubMed/Medline database of National Library of Medicine's (NLM), due to it is easily accessibility and wide use. It was accessed online between April and December 2011. Data for the period 1971–2010 were obtained and information was downloaded using the EndNote program developed by Thomson Reuters.Results: During the study period, a total of 6,964 references (articles, reviews, editorials, letter to the editor, etc.) covering different aspects of Giardia and giardiasis were located in the PubMed database after applying the search strategy reported above. Most papers were original articles and published in English. © 2015 Karim et al.

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