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Three Forks, MT, United States

Shore R.F.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Taggart M.A.,University of the Highlands and Islands | Smits J.,University of Calgary | Mateo R.,Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos | And 2 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Pharmaceuticals are highly bioactive compounds now known to be widespread environmental contaminants. However, research regarding exposure and possible effects in non-target higher vertebrate wildlife remains scarce. The fate and behaviour of most pharmaceuticals entering our environment via numerous pathways remain poorly characterized, and hence our conception and understanding of the risks posed to wild animals is equally constrained. The recent decimation of Asian vulture populations owing to a pharmaceutical (diclofenac) offers a notable example, because the exposure route (livestock carcasses) and the acute toxicity observed were completely unexpected. This case not only highlights the need for further research, but also the wider requirement for more considered and comprehensive ‘ecopharmacovigilance’. We discuss known and potential high risk sources and pathways in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems where pharmaceutical exposure in higher vertebrate wildlife, principally birds and mammals, may occur. We examine whether approaches taken within existing surveillance schemes (that commonly target established classes of persistent or bioaccumulative contaminants) and the risk assessment approaches currently used for pesticides are relevant to pharmaceuticals, and we highlight where new approaches may be required to assess pharmaceutical-related risk. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Ralls K.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Sharma S.,Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute | Smith D.A.,Working Dogs for Conservation | Bremner-Harrison S.,California State University, Bakersfield | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Management

Noninvasive survey methods based on analyzing DNA extracted from feces can be useful for carnivores that are difficult to study by other methods. Changes in fecal deposition patterns associated with reproduction in kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis) might affect results of such surveys. We used a trained dog to collect fresh scats on 2-km transects in the home ranges of 11 radiocollared female kit foxes in January, February, and March 2008 and determined sex of the individual that deposited the scats by amplifying the zinc finger protein gene. Female foxes give birth in mid-February to mid-March. We found a similar number of scats each month. In January, the sex ratio of the scats was not different from the expected 11. However, in February there were almost 2 male scats for every female scat and in March there were >8 male scats for every female scat. Comparing March to January, there were more male scats on all 11 transects and fewer female scats on 10 of 11 transects. Around the time pups are born, both sexes appear to show changes in fecal deposition patterns that make it easier to find male scats and harder to find female scats. Effects of these changes on survey results will vary depending on the purpose and design of the survey. Surveys to determine distribution and relative abundance would probably not be negatively affected by these changes. However, if surveys to estimate abundance are conducted during the reproductive season, they could result in an underestimate of population size unless the increased heterogeneity in scat detectability is taken into account. © 2010 The Wildlife Society. Source

Zorrilla I.,Integrated Quality | Martinez R.,Integrated Quality | Taggart M.A.,University of the Highlands and Islands | Richards N.,Working Dogs for Conservation
Conservation Biology

Exposure to residues of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac present in livestock carcasses has caused extensive declines in 3 Gyps vulture species across Asia. The carcass of a wild Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) was found in 2012 on an Andalucian (Spain) game hunting reserve and examined forensically. The bird had severe visceral gout, a finding consistent with Gyps vultures from Asia that have been poisoned by diclofenac. Liver and kidney samples from this Eurasian Griffon Vulture contained elevated flunixin (an NSAID) levels (median = 2.70 and 6.50 mg/kg, respectively). This is the first reported case of a wild vulture being exposed to and apparently killed by an NSAID outside Asia. It is also the first reported instance of mortality in the wild resulting from environmental exposure to an NSAID other than diclofenac. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology. Source

Masozera M.,Widlife Conservation Society Africa Program | Erickson J.D.,University of Vermont | Clifford D.,Wildlife Investigations Laboratory | Coppolillo P.,Working Dogs for Conservation | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Management

Sustainable management of landscapes with multiple competing demands such as the Ruaha Landscape is complex due to the diverse preferences and needs of stakeholder groups involved. This study uses conjoint analysis to assess the preferences of representatives from three stakeholder groups - local communities, district government officials, and non-governmental organizations - toward potential solutions of conservation and development tradeoffs facing local communities in the Ruaha Landscape of Tanzania. Results demonstrate that there is little consensus among stakeholders about the best development strategies for the Ruaha region. This analysis suggests a need for incorporating issues deemed important by these various groups into a development strategy that aims to promote conservation of the Ruaha Landscape and improve the livelihood of local communities. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Beckmann J.P.,Wildlife Conservation Society | Waits L.P.,University of Idaho | Hurt A.,Working Dogs for Conservation | Whitelaw A.,Working Dogs for Conservation | Bergen S.,Wildlife Landscape Research
Western North American Naturalist

In the northern U.S. Rockies, including the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), connectivity is a concern because large carnivores have difficulties dispersing successfully between protected areas. One area of high conservation value because of its importance for connecting the GYE to wilderness areas of central Idaho is the Centennial Mountains and surrounding valleys (2500 km2) along the Idaho-Montana border just west of Yellowstone National Park. The current expansion of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and other large carnivore populations outside protected areas of Yellowstone National Park and Grand Teton National Park has placed a greater emphasis on potential linkage zones in the northern Rockies. Here we use black bears (Ursus americanus) as a test case to demonstrate the utility of using detection dogs and DNA analysis coupled with resource selection probability function (RSPF) models to examine habitat suitability for large carnivores in critical linkage zones. Detection dogs specifically trained to locate the scat of black bears and grizzly bears were used to sample the study area. Here we report the RSPF results for black bears and discuss the utility of detection dogs for sampling species of carnivores to undertake similar analyses. Utilizing location data from genetic analysis of 616 fecal samples for black bears, we developed a RSPF model to examine use of the landscape with respect to habitat parameters, public land management, private lands, and human activities. The most parsimonious model determining probability of use for black bears included parameters for elevation, coniferous forest, land stewardship, road density, distance to roads, and an interaction between human population density and road density at the scale of 500 m. The model identified specific core-habitat areas in the region that potentially are crucial for the Yellowstone population of grizzly bears as it expands into areas west of Yellowstone National Park. Here we demonstrate that detection dogs are a useful method for sampling large carnivores and, when coupled with genetics and RSPF models, offer an effective approach to addressing questions of habitat suitability in areas of high conservation importance. Source

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