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Jang M.-A.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim E.K.,Sungkyunkwan University | Now H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | Nguyen N.T.H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology | And 23 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2015

Singleton-Merten syndrome (SMS) is an autosomal-dominant multi-system disorder characterized by dental dysplasia, aortic calcification, skeletal abnormalities, glaucoma, psoriasis, and other conditions. Despite an apparent autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance, the genetic background of SMS and information about its phenotypic heterogeneity remain unknown. Recently, we found a family affected by glaucoma, aortic calcification, and skeletal abnormalities. Unlike subjects with classic SMS, affected individuals showed normal dentition, suggesting atypical SMS. To identify genetic causes of the disease, we performed exome sequencing in this family and identified a variant (c.1118A>C [p.Glu373Ala]) of DDX58, whose protein product is also known as RIG-I. Further analysis of DDX58 in 100 individuals with congenital glaucoma identified another variant (c.803G>T [p.Cys268Phe]) in a family who harbored neither dental anomalies nor aortic calcification but who suffered from glaucoma and skeletal abnormalities. Cys268 and Glu373 residues of DDX58 belong to ATP-binding motifs I and II, respectively, and these residues are predicted to be located closer to the ADP and RNA molecules than other nonpathogenic missense variants by protein structure analysis. Functional assays revealed that DDX58 alterations confer constitutive activation and thus lead to increased interferon (IFN) activity and IFN-stimulated gene expression. In addition, when we transduced primary human trabecular meshwork cells with c.803G>T (p.Cys268Phe) and c.1118A>C (p.Glu373Ala) mutants, cytopathic effects and a significant decrease in cell number were observed. Taken together, our results demonstrate that DDX58 mutations cause atypical SMS manifesting with variable expression of glaucoma, aortic calcification, and skeletal abnormalities without dental anomalies. © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics.


PubMed | Galliera Hospital, Manipal University India, Im Fuchsberg 14, Seoul National University and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of human genetics | Year: 2016

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasias (SEMDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive disorders. An apparent X-linked recessive (XLR) form of SEMD in a single Italian family was previously reported. We have been able to restudy this family together with a second family from Korea by segregating a severe SEMD in an X-linked pattern. Exome sequencing showed missense mutations in BGN c.439A>G (p.Lys147Glu) in the Korean family and c.776G>T (p.Gly259Val) in the Italian family; the c.439A>G (p.Lys147Glu) mutation was also identified in a further simplex SEMD case from India. Biglycan is an extracellular matrix proteoglycan that can bind transforming growth factor beta (TGF-) and thus regulate its free concentration. In 3-dimensional simulation, both altered residues localized to the concave arc of leucine-rich repeat domains of biglycan that interact with TGF-. The observation of recurrent BGN mutations in XLR SEMD individuals from different ethnic backgrounds allows us to define XLR SEMD, BGN type as a nosologic entity.


PubMed | Korea University, Eulji University, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul National University and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics | Year: 2016

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of targeted exome sequencing (TES) as a molecular diagnostic tool for patients with skeletal dysplasia.A total of 185 patients either diagnosed with or suspected to have skeletal dysplasia were recruited over a period of 3 years. TES was performed for 255 genes associated with the pathogenesis of skeletal dysplasia, and candidate variants were selected using a bioinformatics analysis. All candidate variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, correlation with the phenotype, and a cosegregation study in the family.TES detected confirmed or highly likely pathogenic sequence variants in 74% (71 of 96) of cases in the assured clinical diagnosis category and 20.3% (13 of 64 cases) of cases in the uncertain clinical diagnosis category. TES successfully detected pathogenic variants in all 25 cases of previously known genotypes. The data also suggested a copy-number variation that led to a molecular diagnosis.This study demonstrates the feasibility of TES for the molecular diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia. However, further confirmation is needed for a final molecular diagnosis, including Sanger sequencing of candidate variants with suspected, poorly captured exons.Genet Med 18 6, 563-569.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Woorisoa Childrens Hospital, Tokyo Metropolitan Childrens Medical Center, Linköping University and Seoul National University
Type: | Journal: Orphanet journal of rare diseases | Year: 2016

Ischiospinal dysostosis (ISD) is a polytopic dysostosis characterized by ischial hypoplasia, multiple segmental anomalies of the cervicothoracic spine, hypoplasia of the lumbrosacral spine and occasionally associated with nephroblastomatosis. ISD is similar to, but milder than the lethal/semilethal condition termed diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD), which is associated with homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of bone morphogenetic protein-binding endothelial regulator protein (BMPER) gene. Here we report for the first time biallelic BMPER mutations in two patients with ISD, neither of whom had renal abnormalities. Our data supports and further extends the phenotypic variability of BMPER-related skeletal disorders.


PubMed | Sungkyunkwan University and Woorisoa Childrens Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of clinical and laboratory science | Year: 2016

Hypophosphatasia is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by defective bone and tooth mineralization and deficiency of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase activity. The prognosis for the infantile form is poor, with approximately 50% of patients dying within the first year of life from respiratory failure. We describe the clinical and biochemical findings as well as the molecular analysis of a Korean boy with infantile hypophosphatasia and present a literature review. A 1-month-old boy visited the clinic because of poor feeding, frequent vomiting, hypotonia, and failure to thrive from birth. Laboratory tests revealed high total calcium, low phosphorous, low alkaline phosphatase, low parathyroid hormone, and normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Intravenous hydration with normal saline was started, and dietary calcium intake was restricted. Skeletal X-rays showed a markedly increased distance of the anterior fontanelle, impaired mineralization, and rachitic changes in the metaphyses. By Sanger sequencing of the ALPL gene, we identified two heterozygous variants, including a missense (c.334G>A; p.Gly112Ser) and a nonsense (c.1039C>T; p.Gln347*) variant. The c.334G>A (p.Gly112Ser) variant had previously been reported in a patient with lethal type hypophosphatasia, while the nonsense c.1039C>T (p.Gln347*) variant was novel. In the current case, the accurate diagnosis and prompt intervention-including dietary calcium intake restriction, tracheostomy to prevent progression to respiratory failure, and fundoplication with gastrostomy to ensure the administration of adequate calories-seemed to play an important role for avoiding preventable morbidity and premature mortality.


PubMed | Osaka University, Jeju National University, Woorisoa Childrens Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University and Seoul National University
Type: Case Reports | Journal: American journal of medical genetics. Part A | Year: 2016

The C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP)-natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2) signaling pathway plays an important role in chondrocyte development. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations of the NPR2 gene cause acromesomelic dysplasia, type Maroteaux (AMDM). The aim of this study was to identify and characterize NPR2 loss-of-function mutations in patients with AMDM. The NPR2 gene was sequenced in three Korean patients with AMDM and functional analysis of the mutated proteins was performed in vitro. Five novel NPR2 mutations were found in the three patients: two compound heterozygous mutations [c.1231T>C (Tyr411His) and c.2761C>T (Arg921X) in Patient 1 and c.1663A>T (Lys555X) and c.1711-1G>C (M571VfsX12) in Patient 3] and a homozygous mutation [c.2762G>A (Arg921Gln) in Patient 2]. Serum NT-proCNP concentration was significantly increased in each patient compared to control subjects. Cells transfected with the expression vector of each mutant except those found in Patient 3 showed a negligible or a markedly low cGMP response after treatment with CNP. HA-tagged wild-type (wt) and HA-mutant NPR2 were expressed at comparable levels: there were two bands of 130 and 120kDa in wt and Arg921Gln, a single 120kDa band in Tyr411His, and a single 110kDa in the nonsense mutant. With respect to subcellular localization, Arg921Gln as well as wt-NPR2 reached the cell surface, whereas Tyr411His and Arg921X mutants did not. The Tyr411His and Arg921X NPR2 proteins were co-localized with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker and failed to traffic from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. These results are consistent with deglycosylation experiments. Tyr411His and Arg921X NPR2 are complete loss-of-function mutations, whereas Arg921Gln behaves as a receptor for CNP with limited function.


Jurgens J.,Johns Hopkins University | Sobreira N.,Johns Hopkins University | Modaff P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Reiser C.A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 6 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2015

Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPRD) is a rare, autosomal-recessive condition characterized by mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) and severe, progressive, early-onset arthritis due to WISP3 mutations. SED, Stanescu type, is a vaguely delineated autosomal-dominant dysplasia of unknown genetic etiology. Here, we report three individuals from two unrelated families with radiological features similar to PPRD and SED, Stanescu type who share the same novel COL2A1 variant and were matched following discussion at an academic conference. In the first family, we performed whole-exome sequencing on three family members, two of whom have a PPRD-like phenotype, and identified a heterozygous variant (c.619G>A, p.Gly207Arg) in both affected individuals. Independently, targeted sequencing of the COL2A1 gene in an unrelated proband with a similar phenotype identified the same heterozygous variant. We suggest that the p.Gly207Arg variant causes a distinct type II collagenopathy with features of PPRD and SED, Stanescu type. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Woorisoa Childrens Hospital and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of human genetics | Year: 2016

SOFT syndrome (MIM614813) is an extremely rare primordial dwarfism characterized by short stature, onychodysplasia, facial dysmorphism and hypotrichosis, which is caused by biallelic mutations in the POC1A gene. Only 19 patients with mutation-confirmed SOFT syndrome have been reported to date, all of whom carried homozygous variants that were strongly associated with consanguineous marriages. We report an 8.5-year-old boy with SOFT syndrome showing primordial dwarfism, no effect of growth-hormone therapy and skeletal dysplasia. This is the first report of compound heterozygous variants in POC1A, one previously reported and the other novel. A characteristic skeletal manifestation is reported.


Lee S.,Gachon University | Park S.Y.,Dankook University | Kwon H.J.,Gachon University | Lee C.-H.,Yonsei University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2016

Pachydermoperiostosis (PDP), or primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, is a rare genetic disease affecting both skin and bones. Both autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance and recessive inheritance of PDP have been previously confirmed. Recently, hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) and solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1) were reported as pathogenic genes responsible for PDP. Both genes are involved in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) degradation. We aimed to identify responsible genes for PDP and the clinical features in Korean patients with PDP. Six affected individuals and their available healthy family members from three unrelated Korean families with PDP were studied. All of the patients displayed complete phenotypes of PDP with finger clubbing, pachydermia, and periostosis. Mutation analysis revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in the SLCO2A1 gene at nucleotide 302 causing a substitution of the amino acid isoleucine to serine at codon 101 (p.IIe101Ser) in affected individuals. We also identified known SLCO2A1 mutations, one homozygous for c.940+1G>A, and another compound heterozygous for c.940+1G>A and c.1807C>T (p.Arg603*) from two PDP families. Genetic analyses of the PDP patients showed no abnormality in the HPGD gene. Our study further supports the role of mutations in the SLCO2A1 gene in the pathogenesis of PDP and could provide additional clues to the genotype-phenotype relations of PDP. © 2016 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

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