Aigler B.V.,Woodard and Curran Inc. |
Ge S.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Environmental Earth Sciences
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the groundwater-withdrawal potential of the Fraser River watershed, a mountainous drainage system in north-central Colorado. Laboratory tests, field investigations, and numerical modeling are conducted to present a quantitative understanding of the watershed's groundwater-flow system. Aquifer hydraulic conductivity values obtained from aquifer tests range from 1E-5 to 1E-3 m/s. Groundwater withdrawal is concentrated in channel-fill deposits of the Troublesome Formation within the Fraser basin. A steady state groundwater-flow model of the Fraser River watershed is developed and calibrated using 24 observation wells in the Fraser River valley and estimated baseflow of the Fraser River. Modeling results suggest that surface recharge is the major source of groundwater in the watershed. Groundwater exits the watershed through evapotranspiration and discharge to rivers. Transient groundwater-flow modeling evaluates future withdrawal scenarios using the hydraulic head distribution from the steady state model as the initial condition. Drawdown within Troublesome Formation aquifers from the current pumping schedule approaches 2 m. When the daily pumping rate is doubled, drawdown approaches 4 m. The radius of influence is hundreds of meters to 1 km. Pumping wells withdraw approximately 2 and 15 % of groundwater flowing through the well field for hydraulic conductivity of 1E-3 and 1E-5 m/s, respectively. This study suggests that the groundwater system at the Fraser Valley could sustain current and future withdrawals, given that the current recharge condition is maintained. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source
Tozer H.,Woodard and Curran Inc.
Journal of New England Water Environment Association
Many industrial wastewater treatment plants use coagulation and flocculation to remove phosphorus, heavy metals, and other solids that would not practically settle in conventional clarifiers. The successful design and operation of these systems must consider the wastewater characteristics, treatment chemistries, mixing, solids recycle, and testing. Source