Wood Group Integrity Management

Australia

Wood Group Integrity Management

Australia

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Rituerto Sin J.,Lulea University of Technology | Hu X.,Wood Group Integrity Management | Emami N.,Lulea University of Technology
Tribology - Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces | Year: 2013

Metal on metal joint replacements are considered as an alternative to metal on polyethylene implants, especially in case of young patients who require a safe and long term performance of the device. The reduction of wear particles is a key factor in order to improve the life time of the implant in the human body. Metals have excellent properties that may increase the long term success of the artificial joint replacement. However, corrosion of the metallic implant leads to an increase of the ion levels in the body of the patient. Metallic ions may produce a host response that can induce a catastrophic failure of the implant. This review initially focuses on the consequences that the degradation of the metals used in orthopaedic implants have for the health of the patient, and the different biological reactions that lead to the failure of the implant. Parameters that affect the release of particles and ions into the body are discussed as well. Special attention is given to the tribology, corrosion and tribocorrosion behaviour of metal on metal implants. Finally, an overview of mathematical models that have been used to model the behaviour of the implants is also presented. © 2013 W. S. Maney & Son Ltd.


Low A.,Wood Group Integrity Management | Selman C.,Wood Group Integrity Management
Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2013: Corrosion and Prevention 2013 | Year: 2013

This paper presents an overview of the status in-line inspection technologies that are currently available in the industry, including the theory behind each inspection technique. It discusses application of in-line inspection technology for the use of detecting corrosion features. The main focus of this paper will be to discuss the practical aspects of performing an in-line inspection of a pipeline including planning, execution, data evaluation and interpretation. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader with an appreciation of the capabilities and limitations of using in-line inspection technology to inspect corroded pipelines. Copyright © 2013 by the Australasian Corrosion Association.


Selman C.,Wood Group Integrity Management
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2011

Depending upon the location and source of the estimate, corrosion accounts for between 20% and 50% of oil and gas pipeline failures. Modelling of external corrosion and the liquid phase during design is relatively robust, and design risks are relatively low. Corrosion in the vapour phase is, however, extremely difficult to model accurately for fundamental physical, chemical and practical reasons, and is not readily amenable to operational mitigation. The design process is challenging and has resulted in many cases of unexpected pipeline damage or failure. This paper describes the most common form of vapour phase corrosion, the origins of the uncertainty in prediction, then discusses strategies developed by experience for determining the appropriate corrosion design for wet gas pipelines. Copyright © 2011 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Collins S.,Santos Ltd | Mills A.,Wood Group Integrity Management
Annual Conference of the Australasian Corrosion Association 2014: Corrosion and Prevention 2014 | Year: 2014

Since 2012, Santos have been in the process of implementing an extensive update to their static pressure equipment inspection and integrity management programs, following formal API RP 581 Risk Based Inspection (RBI) principles. This is a significant multi-year project, covering the majority of Santos' Eastern Australian Business Unit surface assets and equipment, and requiring a substantial commitment in resources. Risk Based Inspection of ageing equipment places a high demand on the integrity of the underlying data, including collating, interpretation and analysis of results. Supported by Wood Group Integrity Management (WGIM), Santos have been able to implement a fully quantitative RBI program across multiple sites with speed and confidence, delivering significant risk and cost reductions to Santos. Whereas normal industry practice has been to use an area based risk approach, Santos elected to use a full financial RBI approach to manage all of their Static Pressure Equipment, including vessels, tanks, piping and PSVs. A fully financial quantitative risk assessment approach allows informed inspection and integrity management decisions to be taken, considering all of the potential risk impacts (safety, environmental and production and equipment costs). The RBI process is only one part of the integrity management approach used by Santos. Through the RBI process, Santos also enhanced their Integrity Management Plans (IMPs) and the definition of Integrity Operating Windows (IOWs), updated Business Processes and the associated Guidelines and Procedures including Training and Support for Staff and Contractors involved in the RBI process. This paper addresses the business processes, software selection process, management of technical challenges (especially management of deficiencies in the API RP 581 RBI approach and software), data collection & validation, output review through workshops & specialist input, and the transferring of risk results into 'on the ground' execution. Specifically, the paper outlines the benefits and challenges of implementing a fully quantitative financial risk model, in comparison to a simpler qualitative approach. The findings are applicable to any oil & gas operator wishing to optimise their inspection programs and best manage their operational risks.


Barker R.,University of Leeds | Hu X.,Wood Group Integrity Management | Neville A.,University of Leeds | Cushnaghan S.,Royal Dutch Shell
SPE Journal | Year: 2014

Various sections of carbon-steel pipework removed from an offshore facility were found to have experienced severe degradation, partly attributed to an insufficient inhibitor dose rate, as discussed in a previous case study (Hu et al. 2011b). An investigation was conducted to compare the predictive capability of an empirical model generated with data from a submerged-impinging-jet laboratory apparatus. The model was assessed in its ability to determine the rate of thickness loss for carbon-steel pipework subjected to a CO 2-containing erosion-corrosion environment, reviewing to what extent the prediction agrees with inspection data. The investigation considers whether the developed tool could have predicted pipework failures on the facility, comparing it with the degradation rate calculated from a leak that occurred within the past 2 years. The program of experiments set out to create a means of prediction with the material-loss data from submerged-impinging-jet tests over a range of conditions replicating those within the line. Information pertaining to the temperature, production rate, and sand loading was collated for the offshore facility. These data were used along with mass-loss results to predict the degradation rate on the asset as a function of time over a 5-year period. This in turn was used to predict the total thickness loss of the pipework wall as a function of time. Consideration was also given to the current use of inhibition (10 ppm Inhibitor A) as well as the predicted thickness losses as a function of time had a candidate inhibitor been used instead (50 ppm Inhibitor B). Limitations of the model are presented, along with suggestions for ways to develop the model further. Copyright © 2014 Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Ahmed T.M.,Wood Group Integrity Management
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2011

Fatigue performance is a serious concern for welded joints of risers and subsea flowlines used for deepwater oil and gas developments. Today's design requirements for some flowlines are becoming increasingly more complex because of high pressures/high-temperature requirements or high plastic strain during installation and service. The impact of such design requirements on fatigue performance has not been fully understood. The paper examines the influence of operating temperature and plastic deformation on the fatigue crack growth behavior of metals. Attempts were made to review the fatigue literature and rationalize the influence of high operating temperature and plastic deformation on fatigue through the strong correlation between the material elastic modulus and fatigue crack growth curves in air. The paper emphasizes the importance of the elastic modulus which has been shown in the fatigue literature to have a significant role on fatigue behavior of metallic materials tested in air at high load ratios. The findings are relevant when carrying out fatigue life assessments for projects related to high temperature applications or where pipelines experience high plastic strain during installation or service. Copyright © 2011 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Ifezue D.,Wood Group Integrity Management | Nettikaden V.C.,Perenco UK Ltd Thames House
Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2013

Thirteen extended H2S excursions (19.64 mg/l maximum) above the Standard Operating Limit (SOL, 6.7 mg/l), recorded for the export and onshore pipeline systems in January 2010, contravened the Pipelines Safety Regulations (PSR) 1996 and triggered an assessment to determine the safety of continued operation in a sour service condition. Sampling and monitoring results were assessed and the pH and H2S partial pressures were found not to align with any of the ISO 15156 SCC regions of environmental severity (0, 1, 2 and 3). Both pipelines were, therefore, considered safe for continued operation as long as pH remained near-neutral above 6.5. Since pH was found to be the main driver for SSCC risk, pH analysis has been recommended for every pig receipt with H2S and CO2 excursions being the main triggers. Also the high risk of HIC should be mitigated by maintaining pH at near-neutral levels. Very low H2S levels have been achieved by pigging, biociding and scavenging and low corrosivities by adequate corrosion inhibition. Weld root hardness of the export pipeline (295 HV10) is out of compliance with ISO 15156 hardness requirements for operating in the SCC region 0 (275 HV 10). Risk-based inspection (RBI) reviews are recommended to determine inspection techniques and frequencies appropriate for all susceptible weldments. © 2013 The Author(s).


James R.C.,Wood Group Integrity Management
Proceedings of the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference | Year: 2013

Line pipe may be manufactured by a variety of techniques, including seamless mandrel mill production, from billet feedstock and 'UOE' production, from plate feedstock. These two techniques impact line pipe end dimensions markedly. Line pipe codes, such as DNV-OSF101 stipulate tolerances for pipe dimensions, which are easily understood in isolation; but the interrelationship between the different dimensions and their tolerances is not necessarily straightforward and is open to interpretation, especially given the variety of acceptable measurement methods. Copyright © 2013 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE).


Larsen K.R.,Wood Group Integrity Management
Materials Performance | Year: 2010

The challenges in offshore corrosion management with respect to the equipment design, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion mechanisms which increase as the oil and gas industry moves into deeper water is discussed. Permanent intrusive coupons and electrical resistance (ER) probes as well as non-intrusive acoustic (sand) monitors have been employed to monitor general corrosion and erosion inside pipelines; but retrieval is still a problem unless they are stationed topside at more user-friendly locations on the offshore asset. Internal corrosion is a bigger threat because it is more unpredictable and harder to quantify, both at the beginning of a new design and during an asset's operating lifetime when companies implement integrity management to keep the pipeline working efficiently and performing as required. The best approach is to reconcile the design investment at the capital expenditure (CAPEX) stage with the operating expenditure (OPEX) incurred during the life of the asset with materials selection, materials fabrication, materials performance, and corrosion assessments that are based on the whole life of the asset.


Ifezue D.,Wood Group Integrity Management
Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance | Year: 2013

The optical interference effect observed in radio frequency glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (rf-GDOES) depth profiles of anodic oxide films formed on several aluminum-tantalum alloys is investigated and then used to determine refractive index, thickness, and composition of the anodized Ta-Al alloy layer. Refractive indices at the tantalum wavelength (1.4-2.4) were found to increase approximately linearly with the Ta2O5/Al 2O3 ratio in the inner layer of the anodic oxide film. The optical interference effect was used to determine the composition of the inner film layer from the intensity/time rf-GDOES depth profile with excellent agreement with RBS-derived values. Good accuracy is obtained for constant sputtering rates and hence good interfacial depth resolution and for intensity signals oscillating uniformly across the film. A procedure is also proposed for calculating the thickness of the transparent layer of the anodic oxide film using the refractive index value derived from calibration plots of refractive index versus Ta2O5/Al2O3 ratio. The quantified depth profile of anodized Ta-24at.%Al alloy is presented. There is excellent accuracy of the quantified composition. The accuracy of the film depth, however, has a strong correlation with calculated density. © 2013 The Author(s).

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