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Bae J.B.,Seoul National University | Kim Y.J.,National Institute of Dementia | Han J.W.,Seoul National University | Kim T.H.,Wonju Severance Christian Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Background/Aims: Knowledge of incidence rates and risk factors is essential for the development of strategies to treat patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A subpopulation of the Nationwide Survey on Dementia Epidemiology (460 Korean subjects aged ≥65 years from 2 rural and 2 urban districts) was followed up for 3.5 years. The age-specific incidence was estimated and risk factors were identified. Results: The age-standardized incidence of AD and MCI was 7.9 and 28.1 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively. MCI was associated with a 6-fold increased risk of AD. Depression was a risk factor for AD with MCI. Age, lack of formal education, illiteracy, rural residence, and marital status were associated with the risk of AD. Conclusion: Strategies to control modifiable risk factors should be implemented to decrease the incidence of AD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Oh Y.K.,Seoul National University | Yang C.W.,St. Marys College | Kim Y.-L.,Kyungpook National University | Kang S.-W.,Yonsei University | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases

Background Renal infarction is a rare condition resulting from an acute disruption of renal blood flow, and the cause and outcome of renal infarction are not well established. Study Design Case series. Setting & Participants 438 patients with renal infarction in January 1993 to December 2013 at 9 hospitals in Korea were included. Renal infarction was defined by radiologic findings that included single or multiple wedge-shaped parenchymal perfusion defects in the kidney. Predictor Causes of renal infarction included cardiogenic (n = 244 [55.7%]), renal artery injury (n = 33 [7.5%]), hypercoagulable (n = 29 [6.6%]), and idiopathic (n = 132 [30.1%]) factors. Outcomes We used recurrence, acute kidney injury (AKI; defined as creatinine level increase ≥ 0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours or an increase to 150% of baseline level within 7 days during the sentinel hospitalization), new-onset estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (for >3 months after renal infarction in the absence of a history of decreased eGFR), end-stage renal disease (ESRD; receiving hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis because of irreversible kidney damage), and mortality as outcome metrics. Results Treatment included urokinase (n = 19), heparin (n = 342), warfarin (n = 330), and antiplatelet agents (n = 157). 5% of patients died during the initial hospitalization. During the median 20.0 (range, 1-223) months of follow-up, 2.8% of patients had recurrent infarction, 20.1% of patients developed AKI, 10.9% of patients developed new-onset eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 2.1% of patients progressed to ESRD. Limitations This was a retrospective study; it cannot clearly determine the specific causal mechanism for certain patients or provide information about the causes of mortality. 16 patients were excluded from the prognostic analysis. Conclusions Cardiogenic origins were the most important causes of renal infarction. Despite aggressive treatment, renal infarction can lead to AKI, new-onset eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, ESRD, and death. © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Source

Hong S.-J.,Yonsei University | Kim B.-K.,Yonsei University | Shin D.-H.,Yonsei University | Kim J.-S.,Yonsei University | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Cardiology

Despite the usefulness of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the impact of IVUS guidance on clinical outcomes, particularly for chronic total occlusion (CTO) intervention, has rarely been studied. We sought to investigate the clinical usefulness of IVUS-guided CTO intervention with second-generation drug-eluting stent implantation. From 2007 to 2009, a total of 2,568 patients were enrolled in the Korean-CTO registry and 534 patients with successful implantation of second-generation drug-eluting stents were analyzed. IVUS-guided PCI was performed on 206 patients (39%). Clinical outcomes at 2 years were compared between the IVUS-guidance group and the angiography-guidance group in 201 propensity score-matched pairs. The primary end point was the occurrence of definite or probable stent thrombosis. Clinical characteristics were similar between both groups after matching. At 2 years, the IVUS-guidance group showed significantly less stent thrombosis than the angiography-guidance group (0% vs 3.0%, p = 0.014) and a lesser trend toward myocardial infarction (1.0% vs 4.0%, p = 0.058). Target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiovascular event rates were similar. However, a significant interaction was observed between the use of IVUS and lesion length for predicting the TLR (p = 0.037), suggesting usefulness of IVUS in long-lesion (≥3 cm) relative to short-lesion CTO. In conclusion, although IVUS-guided CTO PCI was not associated with a reduction in overall major adverse cardiovascular events, IVUS guidance appears to be associated with a reduction of stent thrombosis and myocardial infarction compared with angiography-guided CTO PCI. Additionally, TLR occurred less frequently in the IVUS-guidance group, especially for long lesions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Moon S.H.,Research Institute and Hospital | Cho K.H.,Research Institute and Hospital | Chung E.J.,National Health Insurance Service | Lee C.G.,Yonsei University | And 7 more authors.
Radiotherapy and Oncology

Background and purpose To prospectively investigate the effect of radiotherapy fraction size on clinical outcomes in early glottic carcinoma Methods and materials Patients with T1-2 glottic carcinoma were eligible for the protocol. Although 282 patients were required, the study was closed prematurely due to poor accrual with only 156 patients. Of these, 82 patients were allocated to conventional fractionation (CONV) arm (66 Gy/33 fractions for T1 and 70 Gy/35 fractions for T2), with 74 patients to hypofractionation (HYPO) arm (63 Gy/28 fractions for T1 and 67.5 Gy/30 fractions for T2) the primary objective was local progression-free survival (LPFS). Results With a median follow-up of 67 months (range, 2-122 months), the 5-year LPFS was 77.8% for CONV arm and 88.5% for HYPO arm (HR 1.55, p = 0.213). No significant difference was observed in the toxicity profile between the two arms. In a subgroup exploratory analysis for T1a disease, the 5-year LPFS trended positively in HYPO arm (76.7% vs. 93.0%, HR 3.65, p = 0.056). Conclusions Given that HYPO is at least not inferior to CONV with a similar toxicity profile, the hypofractionation scheme used in this study can be offered to patients with T1-2 glottic carcinoma with potential advantages in terms of local control and a shortened overall treatment time. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lim S.,Wonju Severance Christian Hospital | Lim S.,Yonsei University | Koh M.J.,Daedong Hospital | Jeong H.J.,Yonsei University | And 5 more authors.
Yonsei Medical Journal

Purpose: To examine the usefulness of various receptor tyrosine kinase expressions as prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in muscle invasive urothelial cancer (UC) patients. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 98 patients with muscle invasive UC who underwent radical cystectomy between 2005 and 2010 in Yonsei Cancer Center. Using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues of primary tumors, immunohistochemical staining was done for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). Results: There were 41 (41.8%), 44 (44.9%), and 14 (14.2%) patients who have over-expressed HER2, FGFR1, and FGFR3, respectively. In univariate analysis, significantly shorter median time to recurrence (TTR) (12.9 months vs. 49.0 months; p=0.008) and overall survival (OS) (22.3 months vs. 52.7 months; p=0.006) was found in patients with FGFR1 overexpression. By contrast, there was no difference in TTR or OS according to the HER2 and FGFR3 expression status. FGFR1 remained as a significant prognostic factor for OS with hazard ratio of 2.23 (95% confidence interval: 1.27–3.90, p=0.006) in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Our result showed that FGFR1 expression, but not FGFR3, is an adverse prognostic factor in muscle invasive UC patients after radical cystectomy. FGFR1 might be feasible for prognosis prediction and a potential therapeutic target after thorough validation in muscle invasive UC. © Yonsei University College of Medicine 2016. Source

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