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Nitz U.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Nitz U.,West German Study Group | Nitz U.,Ev. Bethesda Hospital | Gluz O.,West German Study Group | And 24 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard in node-positive (N+) early breast cancer (BC). The magnitude of benefit in intermediate-risk N+ early BC is still unclear. WSG-AGO epiribicine and cyclophosphamide (EC)-Doc is a large trial evaluating modern taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) only. Patients and methods: A total of 2011 BC patients (18-65 years, pN1) were entered into a randomized phase III trial comparing 4 × E90C600 q3w followed by 4 × docetaxel100 q3w (n = 1008) with the current standard: 6 × F500E100C500 q3w (n = 828) or C600M40F600 d1, 8× q4w (n = 175). Primary end point was event-free survival (EFS); secondary end points were overall survival (OS), toxicity, translational research, and quality of life. Central tumor bank samples were evaluable in a representative collective (n = 772; 40%). Ki-67 was assessed centrally in hormone receptor-positive disease as a surrogate marker for the distinction of luminal A/B-like tumors. Results: Baseline characteristics were well balanced between study arms in both main study and central tumor bank subset. At 59-month median follow-up, superior efficacy of EC-Doc [versus FEC (a combination of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide)] was seen in EFS and OS: 5-year EFS: 89.8% versus 87.3% (P = 0.038); 5-year OS: 94.5% versus 92.8% (P = 0.034); both tests one-tailed. EC-Doc caused more toxicity. In hormone receptor-positive (HR)+ disease, only high-Ki-67 tumors (≥20%) derived significant benefit from taxane-based therapy: hazard ratio = 0.39 (95% CI 0.18-0.82) for EC-Doc versus FEC (test for interaction; P = 0.01). Conclusion: EC-Doc significantly improved EFS and OS versus FEC in intermediate-risk BC (1-3 LNs) within all subgroups as defined by local pathology. In HR+ disease, patients with luminal A-like tumors may be potentially over-treated by taxane-based chemotherapy. Clinical Trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02115204. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Stevens K.N.,Mayo Medical School | Fredericksen Z.,Mayo Medical School | Vachon C.M.,Mayo Medical School | Wang X.,Mayo Medical School | And 166 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2012

The 19p13.1 breast cancer susceptibility locus is a modifier of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is also associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated 19p13.1 variation and risk of breast cancer subtypes, defined by estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) status, using 48,869 breast cancer cases and 49,787 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Variants from 19p13.1 were not associated with breast cancer overall or with ER-positive breast cancer but were significantly associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk [rs8170 OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.15; P = 3.49 × 10 -5] and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-negative) breast cancer (rs8170: OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.13-1.31; P = 2.22 × 10 -7). However, rs8170 was no longer associated with ERnegative breast cancer risk when triple-negative cases were excluded (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.07; P = 0.62). In addition, a combined analysis of triple-negative cases from BCAC and the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC; N = 3,566) identified a genome-wide significant association between rs8170 and triple-negative breast cancer risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.18-1.33; P=3.31×10 -13]. Thus, 19p13.1 is the first triple-negative- specific breast cancer risk locus and the first locus specific to a histologic subtype defined by ER, PR, and HER2 to be identified. These findings provide convincing evidence that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer varies by tumor subtype and that triple-negative tumors and other subtypes likely arise through distinct etiologic pathways. ©2012 AACR.


Lu K.H.,University of Houston | Skates S.,Harvard University | Hernandez M.A.,University of Houston | Bedi D.,University of Houston | And 13 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND A 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy was evaluated that incorporates change of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) levels over time and age to estimate risk of ovarian cancer. Women with high-risk scores were referred for transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). METHODS A single-arm, prospective study of postmenopausal women was conducted. Participants underwent an annual CA125 blood test. Based on the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) result, women were triaged to next annual CA125 test (low risk), repeat CA125 test in 3 months (intermediate risk), or TVS and referral to a gynecologic oncologist (high risk). RESULTS A total of 4051 women participated over 11 years. The average annual rate of referral to a CA125 test in 3 months was 5.8%, and the average annual referral rate to TVS and review by a gynecologic oncologist was 0.9%. Ten women underwent surgery on the basis of TVS, with 4 invasive ovarian cancers (1 with stage IA disease, 2 with stage IC disease, and 1 with stage IIB disease), 2 ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (both stage IA), 1 endometrial cancer (stage I), and 3 benign ovarian tumors, providing a positive predictive value of 40% (95% confidence interval = 12.2%, 73.8%) for detecting invasive ovarian cancer. The specificity was 99.9% (95% confidence interval = 99.7%, 100%). All 4 women with invasive ovarian cancer were enrolled in the study for at least 3 years with low-risk annual CA125 test values prior to rising CA125 levels. CONCLUSIONS ROCA followed by TVS demonstrated excellent specificity and positive predictive value in a population of US women at average risk for ovarian cancer. Cancer 2013;119:3454-3461. © 2013 American Cancer Society. This study evaluated a 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy incorporating the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA). ROCA identified early-stage incident cases with excellent specificity and highlights the potential for implementing effective strategies for the early detection of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.


PubMed | Breast Unit, Oncology, German Breast Group Neu Isenburg, Gynecology and 11 more.
Type: | Journal: Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology | Year: 2016

The neoadjuvant phase III GeparSepto study showed that substituting nab-paclitaxel for standard solvent-based paclitaxel significantly improved the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate achieved with a sequential neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen of paclitaxel, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide for high-risk primary breast cancer. Recent trials demonstrated that in HER2+ breast cancer pCR can be increased by using pertuzumab in addition to trastuzumab and chemotherapy. The present analysis focuses on efficacy and safety data from the subset of patients with HER2+ tumors from the GeparSepto trial (n=396) in comparison to the HER2- cohort.Patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer (n=1206) received 4 cycles of weekly paclitaxel [either solvent-based (Pac) or nab-paclitaxel (nab-Pac), according to randomization] followed by 4 cycles of epirubicin 90mg/mHigher rates of pCR were achieved in HER2+ than in HER2- tumors (57.8% vs 22.0%, p<0.0001 ), with the highest rate in the HER2+/HR- cohort (71.0%; 66.7% Pac, 74.6% nab-Pac). In HER2+/HR+ tumors, the pCR rate was 52.9%; (49.7% Pac, 56.4% nab-Pac). Grade 3 toxicities were significantly more common in HER2+ than in HER2- patients, with grade 3-4 diarrhea in 7.6% vs 0.9% (p<0.001) and febrile neutropenia in 6.3% vs 3.3% (p=0.023) of patients. LVEF decreases from baseline were uncommon, with 2.0% vs 0.4% of patients showing decreases to <50% along with a 10% decrease from baseline.In HER2+ early breast cancer, a dual HER2-targeted combination of pertuzumab and trastuzumab, together with taxane-epirubicin-cyclophosphamide neoadjuvant chemotherapy, achieved high rates of pCR.


Patrizio P.,Yale University | Vaiarelli A.,Free University of Brussels | Levi Setti P.E.,Humanitas Research Hospital Fertility Center | Tobler K.J.,Johns Hopkins University | And 3 more authors.
Reproductive BioMedicine Online | Year: 2015

Poor responders represent a significant percentage of couples treated in IVF units (10-24%), but the standard definition of poor responders remains uncertain and consequently optimal treatment options remain subjective and not evidence-based. In an attempt to provide uniformity on the definition, diagnosis and treatment of poor responders, a worldwide survey was conducted asking IVF professionals a set of questions on this complex topic. The survey was posted on www.IVF-worldwide.com, the largest and most comprehensive IVF-focused website for physicians and embryologists. A total of 196 centres replied, forming a panel of IVF units with a median of 400 cycles per year. The present study shows that the definition of poor responders is still subjective, and many practices do not use evidence-based treatment for this category of patients. Our hope is that by leveraging the great potential of the internet, future studies may provide immediate large-scale sampling to standardize both poor responder definition and treatment options. © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mannik J.,University of Tartu | Vaas P.,University of Tartu | Rull K.,University of Tartu | Teesalu P.,Womens Clinic | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Context: The human growth hormone/chorionic somatomammotropin (hGH/CSH) locus at 17q22-24, consisting of one pituitary-expressed postnatal (GH1) and four placenta-expressed genes (GH2, CSH1, CSH2, and CSHL1), is implicated in regulation of postnatal and intrauterine growth. A positive correlation has been reported between the offspring's birth weight and serum placental GH (coded by GH2) and placental lactogen (coded by CSH1, CSH2) levels in pregnant women. Objective: The objective of the study was the investigation of the hypothesis that the mRNA expression profile of placental hGH/CSH genes contributes to the determination of birth weight. Design and Subjects:Wedeveloped a sensitive, fluorescent-labeled semiquantitative RT-PCR assay coupled with gene-specific restriction analysis, capable of distinguishing alternative splice-products of individual placental hGH/CSH genes and quantification of their relative expression levels. The detailed profile of alternative transcripts of GH2, CSH1, CSH2, and CSHL1 genes in placenta from uncomplicated term pregnancies of the REPROMETA sample collection was addressed in association with the birth weight of newborns, grouped as appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 23), small for gestational age (SGA; n = 15), and large for gestational age (LGA; n = 34). Results: The majority of pregnancies with SGA newborn showed down-regulation of the entire hGH/CSH cluster in placenta, whereas in the case of LGA, the expression of CSH1-1, CSH2-1, and CSHL1-4 mRNA transcripts in placenta was significantly increased compared with AGA newborns (P < 0.0001, P = 0.009, P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: The expression profile of placental hGH/CSH genes in placenta is altered in pregnancies accompanied by SGA and LGA compared with AGA newborns, and thus, it may directly affect the circulating fetal and maternal placental GH and placental lactogen levels. Copyright © 2010 by The Endocrine Society.

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