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Retinol-binding protein 4 (Rbp4) is the major carrier of retinol in the bloodstream, a retinoid whose metabolites influence osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and adipogenesis. Rbp4 is mainly produced in the liver where it mobilizes hepatic retinol stores to supply other tissues. However, Rbp4 is also expressed in several extrahepatic tissues, including limbs, where its role is largely unknown. This study aimed to identify the cellular localization of Rbp4 to gain insight into its involvement in limb development and bone growth. Using immunohistochemistry, we discovered that Rbp4 was present in a variety of locations in developing embryonic and postnatal mouse hindlimbs. Rbp4 was present in a restricted population of epiphyseal chondrocytes and perichondral cells correlating to the future region of secondary ossification. With the onset of secondary ossification, Rbp4 was detected in chondrocytes of the resting zone and in chondrocytes that bordered invading cartilage canals and the expanding front of ossification. Rbp4 was less abundant in proliferating chondrocytes involved in primary ossification. Our data implicate the involvement of chondrocytic Rbp4 in bone growth, particularly in the formation of the secondary ossification center of the limb.

Penttila I.A.,Womens and Childrens Health Research Institute
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Breast milk cytokines have the potential to regulate the immune response to food antigens in infants. Cytokines are present in all mammalian milks and are capable of inhibiting excess inflammation and modulating epithelial proliferation. There are a range of candidate cytokines in milk such as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), the major cytokine present, and interleukin-10, which play a role in immune regulation in the developing infant. This article will be a review of the current literature with regard to TGF-β in infant immune development. Our data on supplementation of formula with rTGF-β2 will be discussed in view of the current literature. Oral antigen exposure also plays an important role in priming the developing immune response. The influence of early introduction of oral β-lactoglobulin in allergy prone rat pups will also be discussed. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Womens And Childrens Health Research Institute and DAIRY AUSTRALIA Ltd | Date: 2010-10-14

The invention relates to manufacture of whey protein extracts, to infant formula and to reducing or preventing food allergy. The whey protein extract is produced from a whey protein-containing composition by contacting a whey protein-containing composition with an aqueous solution to form a sample including a soluble protein-containing component and an insoluble component; recovering the soluble protein-containing component from the sample; and acidifying the soluble protein-containing component, thereby producing the whey protein extract. Extracts produced by the method of the invention may be used in infant formula, as a dietary supplement or foodstuff.

Makrides M.,Womens and Childrens Health Research Institute | Makrides M.,University of Adelaide
Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids | Year: 2013

A dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) during the perinatal period is postulated to be important for the neurodevelopmental outcome of children. This paper reviews the results of two large scale intervention trials in which equivalent dietary doses of DHA were assessed. One trial assessed the ex utero effect of DHA supplementation for preterm infants born <33 weeks' gestation while the other trial assessed the in utero effect of DHA supplementation during the second half of pregnancy. Ex utero DHA supplementation, which aimed to achieve the level of DHA accumulation that would occur in the womb, appeared more effective in improving the neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm children rather than in utero DHA supplementation of unborn infants. Significant treatment by sex and treatment by birth weight interactions were noted indicating that boys and girls respond differently to DHA supplementation and that birth weight may also be important in predicating the DHA responsiveness. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Gibson R.A.,Womens and Childrens Health Research Institute | Gibson R.A.,University of Adelaide | Muhlhausler B.,University of Adelaide | Makrides M.,Womens and Childrens Health Research Institute
Maternal and Child Nutrition | Year: 2011

Over the past two decades, there has been a marked shift in the fatty acid composition of the diets of industrialized nations towards increased intake of the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), largely as a result of the replacement of saturated fats with plant-based polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). While health agencies internationally continue to advocate for high n-6 PUFA intake combined with increased intakes of preformed n-3 long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are questions as to whether this is the best approach. LA competes with alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) for endogenous conversion to the LC derivatives EPA and DHA, and LA also inhibits incorporation of DHA and EPA into tissues. Thus, high-LA levels in the diet generally result in low n-3 LCPUFA status. Pregnancy and infancy are developmental periods during which the fatty acid supply is particularly critical. The importance of an adequate supply of n-3 LCPUFA for ensuring optimal development of infant brain and visual systems is well established, and there is now evidence that the supply of n-3 LCPUFA also influences a range of growth, metabolic and immune outcomes in childhood. This review will re-evaluate the health benefits of modern Western diets and pose the question of whether the introduction of similar diets to nations with emerging economies is the most prudent public health strategy for improving health in these populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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