Women Institute of Learning

Abbottābād, Pakistan

Women Institute of Learning

Abbottābād, Pakistan
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Ahmad L.,University of SwabiKhyber Pakhtunkhwa | Iqbal Z.,University of Peshawar | Nazir S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan A.,University of SwabiKhyber Pakhtunkhwa | And 4 more authors.
EXCLI Journal | Year: 2017

Based upon the known potential interaction between omeprazole (OMP) and clopidogrel (CLOP), the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of CLOP on disposition of OMP and its two major metabolites, 5-hydroxyomeprazole (5-OH-OMP) and omeprazole sulfone (OMP-S) in healthy clinical subjects. A randomized, open label, 2-period, crossover study was designed. Twelve volunteers were selected, of whom eight were extensive metabolizers (EM) of CYP2C19 and 4 were poor metabolizers (PM). They received single dose of OMP either alone or in combination with CLOP (single dose) and samples were collected periodically to calculate various pharmacokinetic parameters. Changes in most of the pharmacokinetic parameters of OMP, 5-OH-OMP and OMPS were insignificant (P ˃ 0.05) both in EM and PM except for the maximum concentration (Cmax) of 5-OH-OMP and OMP-S in EM. The OMP Cmax and AUC0-∞ was increased both in EM and PM after concomitant administration of OMP with CLOP. The 5-OH-OMP Cmax was decreased in both EM and PM, demonstrating that CLOP inhibits hydroxylation of OMP. The OMP-S Cmax and AUC0-∞ were increased both in EM and PM showing that CLOP may induce sulfoxidation of OMP. It was concluded that CLOP may inhibit hydroxylation of OMP to a greater extent in EM than in PM, leading to higher OMP Cmax and AUC0-∞. Furthermore, the sulfoxidation of OMP may also be induced by CLOP. So, it is suggested that both these drugs should be carefully prescribed together to avoid any harm to the patients. (Application number13/EC/Pharm. Ref number 12/Pharm). © 2017, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. All rights reserved.

Rashid Z.,Hospital Pharmacy | Sattar A.,Children Hospital Complex | Qureshi M.I.M.,Multan Medical Dental College | Farzana K.,Women Institute of Learning | And 2 more authors.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy | Year: 2012

In hospitals, the most important reservoirs of staphylococci are either infected or colonized patients, while hospital personnel can also serve as reservoirs, they may harbor the organism for longer periods and serves as a link for transmission. The effect of clinical exposure on prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility is determined by comparing data collected from medical personnel (MP), sanitary workers (SW) and non-medical personnel (NMP). Nasal swabs were randomly taken from medical, non medical and sanitary workers, cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar. The isolates were analyzed by using standard microbiological methods. The sensitivity of isolates was carried out by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion technique. The study revealed high rate of S. aureus colonization, while low rate of coagulase negative staphylococci colonization in medical personnel (60 %, 32 %) and sanitary workers (59 %, 36 %) as compared to non-medical personnel (28 %, 68 %) (control group), suggesting that exposure to hospital isolates may alter the c olonization profile. The S. aureus strains isolated from medical staff compared with NMP isolates were significantly more resistant to amikacin (p = 0.047), while there was non-significant (p > 0.05) differ- ence in susceptibility profile against oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, fusidic acid, penicillin and doxycycline. Our study revealed that the clinical exposure might have an effect on nasal carriage and anti-microbial susceptibility of S. aureus.

Khaled A.A.A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Pervaiz K.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Karim S.,University of Punjab | Farzana K.,Women Institute of Learning | Murtaza G.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research | Year: 2013

This study was aimed to develop level A, B and C in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) for encapsulated metoprolol tartrate (T1, T2 and T3 having metoprolol tartrate/polymer ratio of 1 : 1, 1 : 1.5 and 1 : 2, w/w). The in vitro data were correlated with in vivo data. For level A IVIVC, drug absorption data were calculated using Wagner-Nelson method. In addition, convolution approach was used to approximate plasma drug levels from in vitro dissolution data. The coefficient of determination (R2) for level A IVIVC was 0.720, 0.905, 0.928 and 0.878 for MepressorA, T1, T2 and T3 formulations, respectively, with acceptable percent error (< 15%). The value of R2 for level B and C IVIVC was 0.231 and 0.714, respectively. It is also concluded that level A IVIVC is a proficient mathematical model for biowaiver studies involving study parameters as those implemented for T1S (T1 formulation tested for dissolution in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate) revealing that IVIVC level A is dosage form specific, rather than to be drug specific.

Samiullah,University of Peshawar | Iqbal Z.,University of Peshawar | Shah Y.,Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan | Khan M.I.,Women Institute of Learning | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute | Year: 2017

Objective: To conduct the bioequivalence study of commercially available two brands of clarithromycin tablets (500 mg) in healthy Pakistani male volunteers. Methodology: The study was performed using a randomized, open labeled, two treatment periods and cross over study design. Healthy volunteers (n =12) were recruited following strict inclusion criteria. Their blood samples were collected at various time intervals over a period of 24 hrs after oral administration of test and reference formulations of clarithromycin tablets (500 mg). A validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC-UV) was used for the quantification of plasma concentrations of clarithromycin. Various pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis approach. Results: The Cmax, tmax, AUC0−t and half-life (t1/2) values of clarithromycin from test formulation were 2.882 ±0.13 μg/mL, 1.75 ±0.45 hr, 11.33 ±0.68 μg.hr/mL and 2.84 ±0.17 hr, while for reference formulation these were 3.089 ±0.19 μg/ mL, 1.83 ±0.39 hr, 12.87 ±1.09 μg.hr/mL and 3.10 ±0.28 hr, respectively. The 90% confidence interval values of Cmax, tmax, AUC0-t and half life for test and reference formulations of clarithromycin were 0.89-0.98, 0.80-1.14, 0.84-0.93 and 0.88-0.95, respectively, which satisfied the acceptance ranges of WHO and FDA bioequivalence guidelines i.e., 0.80-1.25. Similarly, in-vitro evaluation studies were also performed for both test and reference formulations of clarithromycin as specified in the official monographs in USP-30. Both formulations qualified all the in-vitro tests as per specifications in their respective monographs. The f1 and f2 values were also within the acceptance ranges for test and reference formulations. Conclusion: The test and reference formulations of clarithromycin were bioequivalent. © 2017, Postgraduate Medical Institute. All rights reserved.

Nasim M.J.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Hassan Bin Asad M.H.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Sajjad A.,University of Balochistan | Khan S.A.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | And 4 more authors.
Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research | Year: 2013

Although the majority of serious cases in the world are concerned with snake bite envenomation, but those which are caused by scorpion stings are also famous for causing extreme pain. The present view is an attempt to enlist scientifically ignored medicinal plants of Pakistan exhibiting anti-scorpion venom activity. In this review data of 35 medicinal plants is collected with their families, parts used, distribution in Pakistan, and major constituents present in plant. Amaranthaceae, Astraceae and Euphorbiaceae represent 3 species. Anacardiaceae, Asclepidaceae and Liliaceae represent 2 species. Araceae, Capparidaceae, Ceasalpinaceae, Cyperaceae, Labiatae, Lamiaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Oleaceae, Oxalidaceae, Pinaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, Valerianaceae and Zingiberaceae represented single medicinal plant with anti scorpion potential. According to literature, all parts are used in anti scorpion envenomination. Leaves exhibit 30%, whole plant 9%, fruit, bark and seeds 8% anti scorpion activity. Bulb and stems show 5% contribution in this respect and twigs, resins, inflorescence, latex and flowers express 3% potential. This article may assist the researchers to bring innovation in natural product field for scorpion bite envenomation. However, these medicinal plants are still requiring pharmacological and phytochemical investigation in order to be claimed as effective in scorpion bite envenomation.

Mahmood S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Bashir S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Farzana K.,Women Institute of Learning | Akram M.R.,University of Sargodha | And 2 more authors.
Philippine Agricultural Scientist | Year: 2012

The antibacterial activities of the chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the fruits of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), fig (Ficus carica L.) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were compared against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of the fruits exhibited the highest antibacterial activity while a reduced sensitivity of all bacterial species was observed for chloroform extract. The minimum bactericidal concentration and differential susceptibility of bacterial species were determined for various dilutions (1000, 500, 250 and 125 μg mL-1) of methanol extract from each fruit. Methanol extracts from E. japonica and P. dactylifera were found to be more effective (P≤ 0.05) against E. coli. On the other hand, growth of S. aureus and E. coli was significantly (P≤ 0.05) inhibited by F. carica. A consistently lower susceptibility of P. aeruginosa indicated its capability for developing resistance against various bactericidal substances. The 500 μg mL-1 dilution of methanol extract can be considered as the minimum bactericidal concentration for all fruits. Bactericidal activities displayed by all fruits also signified their remarkable potential for exploration of effective natural antibacterial agents against common pathogenic bacteria.

Khaled A.A.A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Pervaiz K.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Farzana K.,Women Institute of Learning | Murtaza G.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to employ convolution approach for the calculation of blood drug levels for various release types (1:1, 1:1.5, and 1:2, drug:polymer) of metoprolol tartrate microparticulate formulations from in vitro drug dissolution profiles. Using USP 2007 dissolution apparatus II, dissolution testing was carried out by employing sequential pH change method with and without 0.5 % soudium lauryl sulphate, surfactant. The values of derived pharmacokinetic parameters like Cmax (Maximum blood drug concentration), Tmax (Time needed to reach maximum blood drug concentration), and AUC (area under blood drug concentration curve) from the predicted drug concentration in blood were amazingly comparable to that calculated from the corresponding human in vivo data as stated in literature. As per conclusion, convolution approach is a useful analytical tool for computing drug concentration in blood as well as for evaluating product quality.

Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Saud S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Hassan S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | And 14 more authors.
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2015

Zinc (Zn) fertilization could be a viable approach for minimizing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the food chain. The present study was carried out to investigate the role of various Zn fertilization treatments (control, foliar application at tasseling stage, foliar application at milky stage, rubber ash application, soil application of ZnSO4) and cultivars (Pop 2004B, Pop 2006, Azam, Sarhad (W), Pahari) on grain yield, grain Zn, and grain Cd concentrations in maize. All Zn fertilization treatments resulted in a significantly higher grain yield, higher grain Zn concentration, and reduced grain Cd concentration. The application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in a higher grain yield of 62% and a reduced grain Cd concentration by 57% compared to control. Contradictions were apparent between cultivars, and the cultivars which recorded a higher grain yield had a lower Zn concentration in their grains and vice versa. Regarding Cd accumulation, all cultivars except Azam, retained less Cd with increased grain Zn concentration. Future studies should focus on breeding/selection of high yielding and high quality cultivars. Furthermore, the feasibility of rubber ash maybe tested under different climatic and edaphic conditions against other heavy metals and other crops as well. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Khan F.A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pandupuspitasari N.S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ahmed M.M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 12 more authors.
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2014

Infectious diseases and cancers are some of the commonest causes of deaths throughout the world. The previous two decades have witnessed a combined endeavor across various biological sciences to address this issue in novel ways. The advent of recombinant DNA technologies has provided the tools for producing recombinant proteins that can be used as therapeutic agents. A number of expression systems have been developed for the production of pharmaceutical products. Recently, advances have been made using plants as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins directed against infectious diseases and cancers. This review highlights the recent progress in therapeutic protein expression in plants (stable and transient), the factors affecting heterologous protein expression, vector systems and recent developments in existing technologies and steps towards the industrial production of plant-made vaccines, antibodies, and biopharmaceuticals. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Saud S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Hassan S.,University of Peshawar | And 10 more authors.
Weed Research | Year: 2014

Summary: Echinochloa colona and Trianthema portulacastrum are weeds of maize that cause significant yield losses in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the influence of row spacing (15, 25 and 35 cm) and emergence time of E. colona and T. portulacastrum (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 days after maize emergence; DAME) on weed growth and productivity of maize. A season-long weed-free treatment and a weedy control were also used to estimate maize yield and weed seed production. Crop row spacing as well as weed emergence time had a significant influence on plant height, shoot biomass and seed production of both weed species and grain yield of maize in both years. Delay in emergence of weeds resulted in less plant height, shoot biomass and seed production. However, increase in productivity of maize was observed by delay in weed emergence. Likewise, growth of both weed species was less in narrow row spacing (15 cm) of maize, as compared with wider rows (25 and 35 cm). Maximum seed production of both weeds was observed in weedy control plots, where there was no competition with maize crop and weeds were in rows 35 cm apart. Nevertheless, maximum plant height, shoot biomass and seed production of both weed species were observed in 35 cm rows, when weeds emerged simultaneously with maize. Both weed species produced only 3-5 seeds per plant, when they were emerged at 55 DAME in crop rows spaced at 15 cm. Infestation of both weeds at every stage of crop led to significant crop yield loss in maize. Our results suggested that narrow row spacing and delay in weed emergence led to reduced weed growth and seed production and enhanced maize grain yield and therefore could be significant constituents of integrated weed management strategies in maize. © 2014 European Weed Research Society.

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