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Abbottābād, Pakistan

Mahmood S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Bashir S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Farzana K.,Women Institute of Learning | Akram M.R.,University of Sargodha | And 2 more authors.
Philippine Agricultural Scientist

The antibacterial activities of the chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the fruits of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), fig (Ficus carica L.) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were compared against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of the fruits exhibited the highest antibacterial activity while a reduced sensitivity of all bacterial species was observed for chloroform extract. The minimum bactericidal concentration and differential susceptibility of bacterial species were determined for various dilutions (1000, 500, 250 and 125 μg mL-1) of methanol extract from each fruit. Methanol extracts from E. japonica and P. dactylifera were found to be more effective (P≤ 0.05) against E. coli. On the other hand, growth of S. aureus and E. coli was significantly (P≤ 0.05) inhibited by F. carica. A consistently lower susceptibility of P. aeruginosa indicated its capability for developing resistance against various bactericidal substances. The 500 μg mL-1 dilution of methanol extract can be considered as the minimum bactericidal concentration for all fruits. Bactericidal activities displayed by all fruits also signified their remarkable potential for exploration of effective natural antibacterial agents against common pathogenic bacteria. Source

Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Khan F.A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pandupuspitasari N.S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ahmed M.M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 12 more authors.
Biotechnology Letters

Infectious diseases and cancers are some of the commonest causes of deaths throughout the world. The previous two decades have witnessed a combined endeavor across various biological sciences to address this issue in novel ways. The advent of recombinant DNA technologies has provided the tools for producing recombinant proteins that can be used as therapeutic agents. A number of expression systems have been developed for the production of pharmaceutical products. Recently, advances have been made using plants as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins directed against infectious diseases and cancers. This review highlights the recent progress in therapeutic protein expression in plants (stable and transient), the factors affecting heterologous protein expression, vector systems and recent developments in existing technologies and steps towards the industrial production of plant-made vaccines, antibodies, and biopharmaceuticals. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Saud S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Hassan S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | And 14 more authors.
Clean - Soil, Air, Water

Zinc (Zn) fertilization could be a viable approach for minimizing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the food chain. The present study was carried out to investigate the role of various Zn fertilization treatments (control, foliar application at tasseling stage, foliar application at milky stage, rubber ash application, soil application of ZnSO4) and cultivars (Pop 2004B, Pop 2006, Azam, Sarhad (W), Pahari) on grain yield, grain Zn, and grain Cd concentrations in maize. All Zn fertilization treatments resulted in a significantly higher grain yield, higher grain Zn concentration, and reduced grain Cd concentration. The application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in a higher grain yield of 62% and a reduced grain Cd concentration by 57% compared to control. Contradictions were apparent between cultivars, and the cultivars which recorded a higher grain yield had a lower Zn concentration in their grains and vice versa. Regarding Cd accumulation, all cultivars except Azam, retained less Cd with increased grain Zn concentration. Future studies should focus on breeding/selection of high yielding and high quality cultivars. Furthermore, the feasibility of rubber ash maybe tested under different climatic and edaphic conditions against other heavy metals and other crops as well. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Bano A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Bano A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | And 19 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Plants are sessile beings, so the need of mechanisms to flee from unfavorable circumstances has provided the development of unique and sophisticated responses to environmental stresses. Depending on the degree of plasticity, many morphological, cellular, anatomical, and physiological changes occur in plants in response to abiotic stress. Phytohormones are small molecules that play critical roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as stress tolerance to promote survival and acclimatize to varying environments. To congregate the challenges of salinity, temperature extremes, and osmotic stress, plants use their genetic mechanism and different adaptive and biological approaches for survival and high production. In the present attempt, we review the potential role of different phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses and summarize the research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses at physiological and molecular levels. We emphasized the regulatory circuits of abscisic acid, indole acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellic acid, salicylic acid, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, ethylene, and triazole on exposure to abiotic stresses. Current progress is exemplified by the identification and validation of several significant genes that enhanced crop tolerance to stress in the field. These findings will make the modification of hormone biosynthetic pathways for the transgenic plant generation with augmented abiotic stress tolerance and boosting crop productivity in the coming decades possible. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Shah Y.,University of Swabi | Iqbal Z.,University of Peshawar | Ahmad L.,University of Swabi | Nazir S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies

A novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of rosuvastatin (rosuva) and its metabolite N-desmethyl rosuvastatin (NDM-rosuva) in human plasma using atorvastatin as internal standard. The method was validated according to international guidelines. The analytical column used was HiChrom® C18 (150 × 3.0 mm, 3 m; Reading, UK) and the mobile phase comprised of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water (70:30 v/v), pumped at 300 L/min. The precipitation of plasma proteins and extraction of analytes were carried out by a simple one-step procedure using acetonitrile. The calibration curves were linear (r2 = 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.2-20 ng/mL for rosuva and 0.1-10 ng/mL for NDM-rosuva. The lower limits of detection and quantification for rosuva were 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL, whereas for NDM-rosuva, these were 0.03 and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.5%. The average absolute recoveries of both rosuva and NDM-rosuva were greater than 95%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of rosuva and NDM-rosuva pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interaction studies. © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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