Women Institute of Learning

Abbottābād, Pakistan

Women Institute of Learning

Abbottābād, Pakistan

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Ahmad L.,University of SwabiKhyber Pakhtunkhwa | Iqbal Z.,University of Peshawar | Nazir S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | Khan A.,University of SwabiKhyber Pakhtunkhwa | And 4 more authors.
EXCLI Journal | Year: 2017

Based upon the known potential interaction between omeprazole (OMP) and clopidogrel (CLOP), the current study was designed to evaluate the effect of CLOP on disposition of OMP and its two major metabolites, 5-hydroxyomeprazole (5-OH-OMP) and omeprazole sulfone (OMP-S) in healthy clinical subjects. A randomized, open label, 2-period, crossover study was designed. Twelve volunteers were selected, of whom eight were extensive metabolizers (EM) of CYP2C19 and 4 were poor metabolizers (PM). They received single dose of OMP either alone or in combination with CLOP (single dose) and samples were collected periodically to calculate various pharmacokinetic parameters. Changes in most of the pharmacokinetic parameters of OMP, 5-OH-OMP and OMPS were insignificant (P ˃ 0.05) both in EM and PM except for the maximum concentration (Cmax) of 5-OH-OMP and OMP-S in EM. The OMP Cmax and AUC0-∞ was increased both in EM and PM after concomitant administration of OMP with CLOP. The 5-OH-OMP Cmax was decreased in both EM and PM, demonstrating that CLOP inhibits hydroxylation of OMP. The OMP-S Cmax and AUC0-∞ were increased both in EM and PM showing that CLOP may induce sulfoxidation of OMP. It was concluded that CLOP may inhibit hydroxylation of OMP to a greater extent in EM than in PM, leading to higher OMP Cmax and AUC0-∞. Furthermore, the sulfoxidation of OMP may also be induced by CLOP. So, it is suggested that both these drugs should be carefully prescribed together to avoid any harm to the patients. (Application number13/EC/Pharm. Ref number 12/Pharm). © 2017, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. All rights reserved.


Mahmood S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Bashir S.,Bahauddin Zakariya University | Farzana K.,Women Institute of Learning | Akram M.R.,University of Sargodha | And 2 more authors.
Philippine Agricultural Scientist | Year: 2012

The antibacterial activities of the chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water extracts of the fruits of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.), fig (Ficus carica L.) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were compared against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus using the disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of the fruits exhibited the highest antibacterial activity while a reduced sensitivity of all bacterial species was observed for chloroform extract. The minimum bactericidal concentration and differential susceptibility of bacterial species were determined for various dilutions (1000, 500, 250 and 125 μg mL-1) of methanol extract from each fruit. Methanol extracts from E. japonica and P. dactylifera were found to be more effective (P≤ 0.05) against E. coli. On the other hand, growth of S. aureus and E. coli was significantly (P≤ 0.05) inhibited by F. carica. A consistently lower susceptibility of P. aeruginosa indicated its capability for developing resistance against various bactericidal substances. The 500 μg mL-1 dilution of methanol extract can be considered as the minimum bactericidal concentration for all fruits. Bactericidal activities displayed by all fruits also signified their remarkable potential for exploration of effective natural antibacterial agents against common pathogenic bacteria.


Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Matloob A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Khan F.A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 13 more authors.
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2015

Plants are exposed to a variety of abiotic stresses in nature and exhibit unique and complex responses to these stresses depending on their degree of plasticity involving many morphological, cellular, anatomical, and physiological changes. Phytohormones are known to play vital roles in the ability of plants to acclimatize to varying environments, by mediating growth, development, source/sink transitions and nutrient allocation. These signal molecules are produced within the plant, and also referred as plant growth regulators. Although plant response to salinity depends on several factors; nevertheless, phytohormones are thought to be the most important endogenous substances that are critical in modulating physiological responses that eventually lead to adaptation to salinity. Response usually involves fluctuations in the levels of several phytohormones, which relates with changes in expression of genes involved in their biosynthesis and the responses they regulate. Present review described the potential role of different phytohormones and their balances against salinity stress and summarized the research progress regarding plant responses towards salinity at physiological and molecular levels. We emphasized the role of abscisic acid, indole acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellic acid, salicylic acid, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, ethylene and triazoles in mediating plant responses and discussed their crosstalk at various baseline pathways transduced by these phytohormones under salinity. Current progress is exemplified by the identification and validation of several significant genes that enhanced crops tolerance to salinity, while missing links on different aspects of phytohormone related salinity tolerance are pointed out. Deciphering mechanisms by which plant perceives salinity and trigger the signal transduction cascades via phytohormones is vital to devise salinity related breeding and transgenic approaches. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Saud S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Hassan S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | And 14 more authors.
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2015

Zinc (Zn) fertilization could be a viable approach for minimizing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the food chain. The present study was carried out to investigate the role of various Zn fertilization treatments (control, foliar application at tasseling stage, foliar application at milky stage, rubber ash application, soil application of ZnSO4) and cultivars (Pop 2004B, Pop 2006, Azam, Sarhad (W), Pahari) on grain yield, grain Zn, and grain Cd concentrations in maize. All Zn fertilization treatments resulted in a significantly higher grain yield, higher grain Zn concentration, and reduced grain Cd concentration. The application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in a higher grain yield of 62% and a reduced grain Cd concentration by 57% compared to control. Contradictions were apparent between cultivars, and the cultivars which recorded a higher grain yield had a lower Zn concentration in their grains and vice versa. Regarding Cd accumulation, all cultivars except Azam, retained less Cd with increased grain Zn concentration. Future studies should focus on breeding/selection of high yielding and high quality cultivars. Furthermore, the feasibility of rubber ash maybe tested under different climatic and edaphic conditions against other heavy metals and other crops as well. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Khan F.A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Pandupuspitasari N.S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Ahmed M.M.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 12 more authors.
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2014

Infectious diseases and cancers are some of the commonest causes of deaths throughout the world. The previous two decades have witnessed a combined endeavor across various biological sciences to address this issue in novel ways. The advent of recombinant DNA technologies has provided the tools for producing recombinant proteins that can be used as therapeutic agents. A number of expression systems have been developed for the production of pharmaceutical products. Recently, advances have been made using plants as bioreactors to produce therapeutic proteins directed against infectious diseases and cancers. This review highlights the recent progress in therapeutic protein expression in plants (stable and transient), the factors affecting heterologous protein expression, vector systems and recent developments in existing technologies and steps towards the industrial production of plant-made vaccines, antibodies, and biopharmaceuticals. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Saud S.,Northeast Agricultural University | Hassan S.,University of Peshawar | And 10 more authors.
Weed Research | Year: 2014

Summary: Echinochloa colona and Trianthema portulacastrum are weeds of maize that cause significant yield losses in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 to determine the influence of row spacing (15, 25 and 35 cm) and emergence time of E. colona and T. portulacastrum (0, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55 days after maize emergence; DAME) on weed growth and productivity of maize. A season-long weed-free treatment and a weedy control were also used to estimate maize yield and weed seed production. Crop row spacing as well as weed emergence time had a significant influence on plant height, shoot biomass and seed production of both weed species and grain yield of maize in both years. Delay in emergence of weeds resulted in less plant height, shoot biomass and seed production. However, increase in productivity of maize was observed by delay in weed emergence. Likewise, growth of both weed species was less in narrow row spacing (15 cm) of maize, as compared with wider rows (25 and 35 cm). Maximum seed production of both weeds was observed in weedy control plots, where there was no competition with maize crop and weeds were in rows 35 cm apart. Nevertheless, maximum plant height, shoot biomass and seed production of both weed species were observed in 35 cm rows, when weeds emerged simultaneously with maize. Both weed species produced only 3-5 seeds per plant, when they were emerged at 55 DAME in crop rows spaced at 15 cm. Infestation of both weeds at every stage of crop led to significant crop yield loss in maize. Our results suggested that narrow row spacing and delay in weed emergence led to reduced weed growth and seed production and enhanced maize grain yield and therefore could be significant constituents of integrated weed management strategies in maize. © 2014 European Weed Research Society.


Shah Y.,University of Swabi | Iqbal Z.,University of Peshawar | Ahmad L.,University of Swabi | Nazir S.,Kohat University of Science and Technology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies | Year: 2015

A novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of rosuvastatin (rosuva) and its metabolite N-desmethyl rosuvastatin (NDM-rosuva) in human plasma using atorvastatin as internal standard. The method was validated according to international guidelines. The analytical column used was HiChrom® C18 (150 × 3.0 mm, 3 m; Reading, UK) and the mobile phase comprised of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water (70:30 v/v), pumped at 300 L/min. The precipitation of plasma proteins and extraction of analytes were carried out by a simple one-step procedure using acetonitrile. The calibration curves were linear (r2 = 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.2-20 ng/mL for rosuva and 0.1-10 ng/mL for NDM-rosuva. The lower limits of detection and quantification for rosuva were 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL, whereas for NDM-rosuva, these were 0.03 and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.5%. The average absolute recoveries of both rosuva and NDM-rosuva were greater than 95%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of rosuva and NDM-rosuva pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interaction studies. © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Fahad S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Hussain S.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Bano A.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Bano A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | And 19 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Plants are sessile beings, so the need of mechanisms to flee from unfavorable circumstances has provided the development of unique and sophisticated responses to environmental stresses. Depending on the degree of plasticity, many morphological, cellular, anatomical, and physiological changes occur in plants in response to abiotic stress. Phytohormones are small molecules that play critical roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as stress tolerance to promote survival and acclimatize to varying environments. To congregate the challenges of salinity, temperature extremes, and osmotic stress, plants use their genetic mechanism and different adaptive and biological approaches for survival and high production. In the present attempt, we review the potential role of different phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses and summarize the research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses at physiological and molecular levels. We emphasized the regulatory circuits of abscisic acid, indole acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellic acid, salicylic acid, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, ethylene, and triazole on exposure to abiotic stresses. Current progress is exemplified by the identification and validation of several significant genes that enhanced crop tolerance to stress in the field. These findings will make the modification of hormone biosynthetic pathways for the transgenic plant generation with augmented abiotic stress tolerance and boosting crop productivity in the coming decades possible. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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