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Providence, RI, United States

Buster J.E.,Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island
Fertility and Sterility

Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc. Source

Kasdorf E.,Weill Cornell Medical Center | Laptook A.,Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island | Azzopardi D.,Imperial College London | Jacobs S.,Neonatal Services | Perlman J.M.,Weill Cornell Medical Center
Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition

Objective: Asystole at birth and extending through 10 min is rare, with current international recommendations stating it may be appropriate to consider discontinuation of resuscitation in this clinical scenario. These recommendations are based on small case series of both term and preterm infants, where death or abnormal outcome was nearly universal. Study objective was to determine recent outcome of infants with an Apgar score of 0 at 10 min despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation, treated with therapeutic hypothermia or standard treatment, in randomised cooling studies. Design: Outcome studies of infants with an Apgar of 0 at 10 min subsequently resuscitated and treated with hypothermia or standard treatment were reviewed and combined with local outcome data of infants treated with hypothermia. Results: Four recent studies (n=81) and local data (n=9) yielded a total of 90 infants with an Apgar of 0 at 10 min, with 56 treated with hypothermia and 34 controls. Primary outcome of death or abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome (18-24 months) occurred in 73% cooled and 79.5% normothermic infants (p=0.61). Implications: Although poor, the outcome for infants with an Apgar of 0 at 10 min of life has improved substantially in recent years. This may be related to treatment with hypothermia, enhanced resuscitation techniques and/or other supportive management. Current recommendations to consider discontinuation of resuscitation without a detectable heart rate at 10 min should consider these findings. Source

Bourjeily G.,Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine | Chalhoub M.,Staten Island University Hospital | Miller M.A.,Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island
European Respiratory Journal

The physiological changes of pregnancy may predispose females to develop sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) or protect against it. Studies evaluating outcomes of SDB symptoms in pregnancy are scarce. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SDB symptoms in pregnancy and their relationship with pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected immediate postpartum females was performed using the multivariable apnoea prediction index. Record review, including demographics and medical history, was performed. Main outcome measures included pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. 1,000 subjects were recruited. Mean±SD age was 29.1±6.1 yrs. Factors used in the regression analysis included age, body mass index, diabetes, chronic hypertension, multifetal gestations, smoking and renal disease. Snoring was present in 35.1% of subjects. Symptoms of SDB were associated with a higher likelihood of pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia (adjusted OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-4.0), gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4) and unplanned Caesarean deliveries (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.2) after multivariable regression analysis. Gasping may have been associated with a higher likelihood of preterm delivery, after adjusting for age and multifetal pregnancies (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.2) but this association appeared to be mediated by pre-eclampsia. Symptoms of SDB are common in pregnancy and associated with a higher likelihood of gestational hypertensive disorders, gestational diabetes and unplanned Caesarean deliveries. Copyright©ERS 2010. Source

Bourjeily G.,Brown University | Ankner G.,Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island | Mohsenin V.,Yale University
Clinics in Chest Medicine

Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing are more common in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women. It is likely that physiology of pregnancy predisposes to the development or worsening of sleep-disordered breathing, but some physiologic changes may also be protective against the development of this disease. Clinical presentation may be less predictive of sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant population; nonetheless, snoring is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Treatment strategies are similar to the nonpregnant population, however, pregnancy-specific scenarios may arise and these subtleties are addressed in this review. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Venkatesh K.K.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Zlotnick C.,Brown University | Triche E.W.,Brown University | Ware C.,Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island | Phipps M.G.,Brown University

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 3 subscales for identifying postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. METHODS: Mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the 10-item EPDS at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Three subscales of the EPDS were assessed as brief screening tools: 3-item anxiety subscale (EPDS-3), 7-item depressive symptoms subscale (EPDS-7), and 2-item subscale (EPDS-2) that resemble the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Receiver operating characteristic curves and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy. The sensitivities and specificities of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder. Repeated-measures longitudinal analytical techniques were used. RESULTS: A total of 106 women contributed 289 postpartum visits; 18% of the women met criteria for incident postpartum depression by psychiatric diagnostic interview. When used as continuous measures, the full EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 performed equally well (area under the curve >0.9). Optimal cutoff scores for a positive depression screen for the EPDS and EPDS-7 were lower (≥9 and ≥7, respectively) than currently recommended cutoff scores (≥10). At optimal cutoff scores, the EPDS and EPDS-7 both had sensitivities of 90% and specificities of >85%. CONCLUSIONS: The EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 are highly accurate at identifying postpartum depression among adolescent mothers. In primary care pediatric settings, the EPDS and its shorter subscales have potential for use as effective depression screening tools. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

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